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One of the more challenging aspects of developing pasture and grazing land is providing access to a reliable water supply for livestock. In some cases, existing streams, creeks, or ponds provide drinking water for the livestock. When a surface water source is not available, wells can be drilled and pumps installed to provide water for the animals. In some instances, surface water may be …

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A Water Safety Plan (WSP) is a preventive management approach used to assess and manage threats to a drinking water system— from catchment to consumer.It helps in the
• Management of activities in the watershed to control contamination of source water.
• Removal or inactivation of contaminants during treatment.
• Prevention of recontamination during distribution, storage, and …

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Water is essential to life, health and dignity and access to it is a basic human right. All refugees should have assured access to adequate water of good quality, to sanitation facilities, and hygiene promotion practices. In emergencies a WASH response is critical, to reduce mortality and morbidity, and enhance refugees' protection, dignity and quality of life.

It is vital to monitor water …

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This document provides an overview of what information to present and how to do so in the development of the Humanitarian Needs Overview. It should be read alongside the:

The HPC Step-by-Step re-asserts the sequence of the needs analysis and planning, with needs analysis directly informing the decision-making with regards to response, whether for the preparation of new plans or adjustments to …

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This handbook supports the implementation of health programmes in deprived environments, in particular in closed settings like refugees and displaced persons camps, in health structure. The purpose is to increase the effectiveness with which relief workers can provide sound water, hygiene and sanitation assistance in precarious situations.

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World wide attention is given to the prevention of failure of medium to large sized dams, with little attention being paid to small dams. As a result the physical condition of small dams is generally poor, making them susceptible to failure. However, small reservoirs are an important source of both primary and productive water for rural communities. It is against this background that this study …

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Sustainable and affordable supply of clean, safe, and adequate water is one of the most challenging issues facing the world. Membrane separation technology is one of the most cost-effective and widely applied technologies for water purification. Polymeric membranes such as cellulose-based (CA) membranes and thin-film composite (TFC) membranes have dominated the industry since 1980. Although …

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The Nicaraguan rope pump has stimulated widespread interest throughout Central America due to its low cost, efficiency, durability and low maintenance needs. The pump is based on a centuries-old design that was refined during the 1980s and 1990s. Suitable for use at either a community or family level, the pump operates as well as other, more expensive pumps such as the Afridev and India Mark II …

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Globally, more than a billion people—approximately 15 percent of the world’s population, or one in seven persons—have disabilities. Of those, 80 percent live in developing countries. This number is expected to increase as the prevalence of disability is impacted by disease, war and conflict, natural disasters, and road traffic injuries, among other factors. In addition, persons over the age …

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Solar photovoltaic water pumping (SWP) uses energy from solar photovoltaic (PV) panels to power an electric water pump. The entire process, from sunlight to stored energy, is elegant and simple. Over last seven years, the technology and price of solar pumping have evolved dramatically and hence the opportunities it presents. Solar pumping is most competitive in regions with high solar insolation, …

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Delivering safe and sustainable water supplies presents a fundamental challenge for an urbanising planet. Approximately 1.5 million people migrate to cities and their peri-urban fringes each week, and the fastest growth occurs in small to intermediate sized cities where infrastructure and governance capacity lag (Birkmann et al., 2016). Piped water systems are struggling to keep pace. In this …

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Water safety plans (WPS) have been implemented in every region of the world, and many implementing countries have included WSPs in drinking-water policies or regulations. Enforcement of WSP requirements, as well as general WSP success and sustainability, requires ongoing WSP auditing, i.e. independent and systematic checks of WSP completeness, implementation in practice and effectiveness.

The …

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Since the establishment of the International Scheme to Evaluate Household Water Treatment Technologies (the Scheme) in 2014, WHO has been independently evaluating the performance of household water treatment (HWT) technologies in removing microbial contaminants from drinking-water. The results of the evaluation are intended to guide procuring United Nations (UN) agencies and Member States in HWT …

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There are a number of circumstances in which it may be necessary to treat water at the point of use to remove or inactivate microbial pathogens. These include:
• failure of control measures, including lack of or improper disinfection and unsafe handling and storage;
• emergencies and disasters leading to inadequate sanitation, hygiene and protection of water sources;
• uncertain …

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The fourth edition of the World Health Organization’s (WHO) Guidelines for drinking-water quality (GDWQ) builds on over 50 years of guidance by WHO on drinking-water quality, which has formed an authoritative basis for the setting of national regulations and standards for water safety in support of public health.

It is the product of significant revisions to clarify and elaborate on ways of …

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Globally, an estimated 1.9 billion people use either an unimproved water source or an improved source that is faecally-contaminated. Furthermore, 502,000 diarrhoeal deaths in low- and middle-income countries can be attributed to insufficient and unsafe drinking-water (WHO, 2014a). The vast majority of these deaths occur in Africa and South-East Asia, mainly among vulnerable populations, including …

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The principles and practice of water safety planning are increasingly being adopted around the world as the basis for the provision of safe and clean drinking-water. This process is most pronounced in urban conglomerates where the institutional infrastructure of municipal corporations, parastatal enterprises or private utilities is conducive to their adoption.

Water safety planning has a …

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WSPs are a risk-based preventative approach to most effectively protect drinking-water safety and are recommended in the WHO Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality. WSPs are now being adopted worldwide, but they are not always fully understood by all stakeholders. Face-to-face training is therefore essential to ensure globally successful WSP implementation.

The training package consists of …

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This fourth edition of the World Health Organization’s (WHO) Guidelines for drinking-water quality builds on over 50 years of guidance by WHO on drinking-water quality, which has formed an authoritative basis for the setting of national regulations and standards for water safety in support of public health.

It is the product of significant revisions to clarify and elaborate on ways of …

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During the preparation of background documents and at expert meetings, careful consideration was given to information available in previous risk assessments carried out by the International Programme on Chemical Safety, in its Environmental Health Criteria monographs and Concise International Chemical Assessment Documents, the
International Agency for Research on Cancer, the Joint FAO/WHO …

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Volume 4 of the Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywater provides information on the assessment and management of risks associated with microbial hazards. It explains requirements to promote the safe use of excreta and greywater in agriculture, including minimum procedures and specific health-based targets, and how those requirements are intended to be used. This volume …

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Many of the most common diseases found in traumatized communities after a disaster or emergency are related to drinking contaminated water. The contamination can be from micro-organisms (Table 1) or natural and man made chemicals (Table 2). This fact sheet concentrates on the problems caused by drinking water contaminated by micro-organisms as these are by far the most common and can be reduced …

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This report seeks to stimulate the much-needed discussion on developing a better approach to assisting people in urban areas that have been affected by protracted armed conflict. It combines current research with over three decades of ICRC experience in urban areas, deriving information through focus groups and individual interviews as well as from in-depth studies on Iraq and Gaza. The …

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Boreholes are one of the best means of obtaining clean water in field conditions. However, constructing, or repairing, boreholes requires specialized knowledge and technical expertise, much of which can be gained from the standard literature; but field operations in remote areas or in difficult conditions often require flexibility and imagination in avoiding and solving technical problems. This …

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