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Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA)

Bibliothèque

Cette bibliothèque contient des publications de diverses organisations qui suivent le concept source ouverte pour le renforcement des capacities de construction et l´utilisation à but non lucrative, avec tous les droits d´auteurs originaux ou des organisations productrices. Par consequent, l´utilisateur doit toujours accorder du credit aux citations de l´auteur, la source d´origine et le détenteur des droits d´auteur. Nous remercions toutes les personnes qui ont  fournit des publications et des documents!

Nous vous invitons cordialement à y contribuer par vos publications et documents importants à cette bibliothèque électronique en pleine croissance. Veuillez les envoyer à info@susana.org.

Water, Life and Perspectives

Intergenerational Dialogue in Mathare, Kenya [DRAFT]

Rudolph, H.-H., Mbalo, D., Becker, A., Weber, L.

2014

Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ)

The crisis in Kenya’s low-income urban settlements is dramatic. The Greater Nairobi area alone currently has more than four million inhabitants. The number will almost double in the next 30 years. More than 50% of the inhabitants are without access to an acceptable drinking water supply and sanitation. This has negative impacts, especially on families, women and children. The situation in Mathare, one of the biggest urban slum areas in Nairobi, is even worse. The vicious circle of extreme poverty, inadequate water supply and sanitation, disease, unemployment and poor prospects for young and old, poor infrastructure and lack of security is evident. This brochure highlights what life is like in Mathare for the younger and older generation expressed through the eyes of the young residents of Mathare. The intergenerational dialogue which took place in October 2013 aimed at strengthening mutual understanding, social integration and future planning, with a focus on water and sanitation for the different population groups in Mathare.

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Software to identify and quantify pathogenic helminth eggs

Various documents on results from research grant

Jiménez Cisneros, B.

2014

Name of lead organization: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Mexico

This library entry contains background documents for a grant that Blanca Jiménez Cisneros is leading and which is funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Further information and a discussion is available on the SuSanA discussion forum: http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/97-enabling-environment/2912-software-to-identify-and-quantify-pathogenic-helminth-eggs-university-universidad-nacional-autonoma-de-mexico-unam-mexico#9351 Short description of the project: Name of lead organization: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) The following activities have been performed: a) Integration of a library of helminth eggs images including eight different species, at three viability stages: viable eggs, non-viable eggs, and larval eggs. b) Software development. Its functions involve detecting and labeling all visible objects in an image, using different processes (filtration, equalization, application of algorithms, etc.), and afterwards the classification of each detected objects based on shape (area, perimeter and eccentricity), and texture properties. The image library was needed to train the software on how a specific helminth egg would look like. c) Software first validation. Comparative tests were conducted to determine the difference between software performance, and the results given by the standard identification and quantification technique performed by expert microbiologists. Most of the validation and software improvement have been done simultaneously. The following activities are still ongoing: a) To include additional helminth eggs species to the recognition protocol. b) To finish the lab validation so all the objectives can be achieved. c) To perform international peer-labs test and validation. d) To develop a user friendly software that may be widely distributed. e) To find a proper distribution channel that benefits target users (mostly) in developing countries. Goal(s) Phase II: To distribute this tool worldwide, and ensure mainly that those regions that have limited resources to perform wastewater, sludge, biosolids and excreta quality assessments have easy access to this tool. Objectives (Phase II) a) To increase the sensibility of the identification system when dealing with high solids content water (class III or raw wastewater) and establish the protocol for this case. b) To validate the software to detect and quantify different genera of helminth eggs from samples of different water qualities including wastewater and greywater, and also from sludge, biosolids and excreta samples. c) To include additional helminth eggs species to the recognition protocol. d) To validate the system with international partners. e) To test the system with Mexican partner labs which are certified in the standard technique to start local distribution. f) To obtain a patent for the system. g) To launch a worldwide distribution strategy. h) To develop an easy-to-use platform of the software and the distribution strategy to reach the final users. i) To test the last version and establish the distribution strategy. Start and end date: Phase I: 02/01/2012 to 06/01/2013 Phase II: 02/01/2014 to 01/01/2016 The following documents are available for download: 1 - Journal paper: A Real-Time PCR Method for Quantifying Viable Ascaris Eggs Using the First Internally Transcribed Spacer Region of Ribosomal DNA (2006) 2 - Presentation: Software to identify and quantify pathogenic helminth eggs (2014)

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Agricultural trials demonstrate benefits of urine harvesting and sustainable sanitation

Fact Sheet

Andersson, K

2014

Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI), Stockholm, Sweden

This fact sheet describes a pilot project in Bind Block, Bihar State, India that set up urine-harvesting facilities and agricultural trials to demonstrate to local farmers and policy-makers the value of treated urine as a fertilizer. The aim of the trials was to help change negative attitudes towards handling urine (and human excreta in general), which can be a major obstacle to the adoption of ecological sanitation (ecosan). Ecosan was deemed the most appropriate form of sustainable sanitation to introduce in Bihar, since it can not only help to reduce the health and environmental impacts of open defecation but can also improve rural livelihoods and nutrition for small-scale farmers through the productive reuse of treated excreta in agriculture. The pilot project activities attracted a lot of interest among local farmers, leaders and agricultural experts, inspiring the wider adoption of both urine harvesting and other forms of ecosan in surrounding communities.

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Sanitation Policy and Practice in Rwanda: Tackling the Disconnect

Policy brief

Ekane, N.

2013

Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI), Stockholm, Sweden

A coherent national policy on sanitation and hygiene is critical for raising the profile of the sanitation and hygiene sector and for improving access to safe and hygienic sanitation facilities. However, policy alone is not adequate. In Rwanda, like many other developing countries, it remains a mammoth challenge to translate policy on sanitation and hygiene into practice.

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Multi-level sanitation governance: Understanding and overcoming the challenges in the sanitation sector in Sub-Saharan Africa

Working paper

Ekane, N., Nykvist, B., Kjellén, M., Noel, S., Weitz, N.

2014

Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI), Stockholm, Sweden

This paper uses analysis of multi-level governance, path dependency, and institutional inertia to help understand some of the challenges in the sanitation sector in sub-Saharan Africa, and discusses approaches for overcoming them. The provision of sanitation facilities – a basic necessity for human health, well-being, dignity and development – remains a mammoth challenge for developing countries, in which the vast majority of the 2.5 billion people without improved sanitation facilities reside. Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is one of the regions where decent, dignified and functional toilet facilities remain largely inaccessible. Most countries in SSA will not meet the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) for sanitation. There are sharp contradictions in the region between formal and informal sanitation institutions. There is also a disconnect between actors at the macro, meso and micro governance levels. This paper shows how analysis of multi-level governance, path dependency, and institutional inertia can be used to improve understanding of some of the challenges in the sanitation sector in SSA, and discusses approaches that can contribute to improving the sanitation situation in a sustainable way. In addition, the paper asserts that demand-driven strategies and private sector involvement in the sanitation sector is paramount for establishing new sanitation paradigms and socio-technical regimes.

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Linking Relief and Development in the WASH Sector

An overview and contribution to the international debate

Gensch, R., Hansen, R., Ihme, M.

2014

German WASH Network, Berlin, Germany

The publication aims to provide a more in-depth overview of existing definitions, prevalent categorisations and models that are currently being used to describe the relief to development contiguum in the WASH sector and identify existing challenges and opportunities that come along with it. It looks into the main disaster and crisis scenarios and how they affect the WASH sector. It provides definitions for the different assistance types (relief, recovery and development) and the role that WASH plays in each of them. It furthermore summarises main concepts and approaches that are being used and makes an attempt to map out the complex structures and funding mechanisms in both relief and development and identifies existing challenges and opportunities in the transition contiguum. For this paper a wide range of sector professionals have been asked to provide feedback reflecting either their individual and/or organisational views and experiences regarding current challenges, opportunities as well as recommendations for the way forward. The publication should be seen as a current snapshot of the sector at the interface between humanitarian assistance and development cooperation. It intends to foster the mutual understanding of each other’s field of work and provides impulses for fuelling the on-going international debate on how to better link relief, rehabilitation and development in the WASH sector.

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Handbook for plumbers on household connectivity

GIZ - SNUSP

2013

GIZ - Support to theNational Urban Sanitation Policy (SNUSP), New Delhi, India

The Handbook on household connectivity for Plumbers is designed (from Indian context)as an aid for plumbers to take informed decisions in the field. It does not override any state or central government regulations and standards or manufacturer’s installation requirements, all of which must be adhered to at all times. The technical diagrams in this publication reflect the general principle behind the technology or process and may differ in appearance from the actual Process/products. This publication is only a reference guide and readers should obtain appropriate professional advice relevant to their particular circumstances.

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Expansion of the Sanitation Network into the SuSanA Community (Phase 1) and Extension of the SuSanA Discussion Forum (Phase 2)

Various documents on results from research grant

von Muench, E., Rosemarin, A., Spuhler, D.

2014

Stockholm Environment Institute, Stockholm, Sweden

This library entry contains background documents for a grant that Arno Rosemarin is leading and which is funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Further information and a discussion is available on the SuSanA discussion forum: http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/139-information-on-the-bmgf-sanitation-grants-and-webinars/2437-open-discussion-forum-for-sanitation-grantees-of-bill-and-melinda-gates-foundation-phase-2-approved Project Description for Phase 1: The purpose of this project is to transfer ownership and control of the existing Sanitation Network currently managed by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF) Water, Sanitation & Health (WSH) Team to the Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) and the Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) as part of a broader publicly available discussion forum. Primary objectives of this project: • Assume ownership and control of the Sanitation Network • Make the Sanitation Network a public-facing community Primary activities to achieve the objectives: • Transfer the existing content and membership to a dedicated section of the Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) online community (open discussion forum), • Transition the management of the Sanitation Network to Stockholm Environment Institute (and its respective partners/sub-contractors), • Open the Sanitation Network to the general public. Specifically, a new distinct category will be created in SuSanA called “Innovative Sanitation Science and Technology in Low-Resource Settings” (Science and Technology Forum) where innovators can discuss the system requirements to make their ideas a reality. As part of the project, technology resources will be uploaded to the SuSanA library and ‘marketed’ in the Forum for discussion. The SuSanA library will be available to the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation WSH Team for dissemination of project reports to a wider public audience. Summary of project description for Phase 2: The project is aimed at contributing to the knowledge management and dissemination that the BMGF is carrying out for its sanitation and hygiene projects. These services include launching each project on the Sustainable Sanitation Alliance webpage and Discussion Forum and to provide outreach capacity in order for the project to be seen and understood by targeted individuals and organizations that work within the WSH sector. The SuSanA Discussion Forum and online library is an ideal location for broadcasting information about the sanitation grants of the BMGF and represents an independent environment that is already recognized as a cornerstone in the sanitation community for information dissemination and discussion. The SuSanA online community is an established professional forum and community of practice that has been working with and discussing innovative, sustainable sanitation and hygiene solutions for over seven years, since January 2007, including an open discussion forum since mid 2011 in order to make exchange and discussions more accessible to a wider audience. The activities of the grant are clustered to support the following three main outcomes: 1. Improvements made to the structure, user-friendliness and ease of navigation of the SuSanA Discussion Forum, including basic curator functions for newcomers and non-experts 2. The relevant BMGF grants, as well as closely related projects, introduced on the SuSanA Discussion Forum and scrutinized in a constructive and supported manner (moderated process) 3. The grantees and non-grantees actively engaging with each other in a networked community of practice, where people know each other, using a combination of online and face-to-face means exchanging results and experiences Duration: Phase 1: Nov. 2012 - Apr. 2014 Phase 2: July 2014 - Dec. 2015 Documents available for download below: 1 - "Sustainable Sanitation Alliance members take a closer look at the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation’s sanitation grants" - Authors: Elisabeth von Muench, Dorothee Spuhler, Trevor Surridge, Nelson Ekane, Kim Andersson, Emine Goekce Fidan, Arno Rosemarin, Paper in Sustainable Sanitation Practice (SSP) Journal, Issue 17, EcoSan Club, Austria (2013). 2 - Report about survey results: Questionnaire to Grantees funded by BMGF-WSH (date: 17 March 2014) 3 - Appendix II of final report: Analytics Report covering time period July 2011 until 3 March 2014 (date: 19 March 2014)

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Emergency sanitation project

Progress report

WASTE

2014

International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC)

The Emergency Sanitation Project (ESP) aims to increase the global understanding of current and future emergency sanitation solutions and to propose new concepts and modular technologies for safe excreta disposal and hygiene in emergency settings that are applicable in a variety of situations and contexts. This report summarizes progress of the ESP’s work funded by the US Office for Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA). The ESP commenced in October 2012 and is a consortium of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC), WASTE and Oxfam Great Britain, with IFRC leading the consortium and managing the funds from OFDA.

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Malawi field trials

Emergency sanitation

WASTE

2014

WASTE, The Netherlands

This handout on the treatment of faecal sludge for emergency situations by WASTE Advisers is part of the Emergency Sanitation Project (ESP) and the S(P)EEDKITS Project. The ESP project is funded by the US Office for Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA) and is a consortium of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC), WASTE and Oxfam GB. S(P)EEDKITS has received funding from the European Unions seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement No 284931. The activities were executed in close cooperation with the Technical University of Delft, Unesco-IHE in Delft, Blantyre City Council (Malawi).

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DEWATS process for decentralised wastewater treatment

Technical lessons from eThekwini Municipality

WRC

2014

Water Research Commision (WRC), Gezina ZA, South Africa

Decentralised wastewater treatment involves treatment and disposal of wastewater close to the source it was generated from. Decentralised Wastewater Treatment System (DEWATS) plants are envisaged in South Africa for high-density areas that are not located close to centralised sewered network. Despite the wide scale implementation of DEWATS plants around the world, there have been few studies that document compliance monitoring of DEWATS plants and / or assess the performance at different hydraulic loadings conditions. A technical evaluation plant designed by the not-for-profit organisation BORDA – Bremen Overseas Research and Development Association - was built by the Ethekwini Municipality for this purpose with the research undertaken by the Pollution Research Group, University of KwaZulu-Natal. EThekwini Municipality, in common with other municipalities in South Africa, are faced with the increasing challenge of providing housing and infrastructure to the population of the city. New housing developments are continuously being established within the urban and peri-urban areas in order to meet the housing backlog, many of which are not able to be connected to the main sewer line. The city therefore looked to the DEWATS approach as a possible sanitation solution for future housing developments. The document looks at the technical lessons learnt from the evaluation of the BORDA DEWATS process under different operating conditions.

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Achieve Green Drop status

Kruger National Park chooses green technology to achieve a Green Drop - Lesson series May 2014

WRC

2014

Water Research Commision (WRC), Gezina ZA

Most people associate the Kruger National Park (KNP) with exciting game sightings and a pristine bush veld experience. When one enters the wastewater plant at Skukuza, this experience continues seamlessly. You smell earth and veld. A lone carmine bee-eater sits on the surrounding elephant fencing. The ponds are a favourite gathering spot for marabou storks and Egyptian geese. The water that exits the reed bed is crystal clear. There is no smell or other evidence that this serene spot is actually treating between 240 000 and 320 000 litres of sewage per day. The Kruger National Park receives approximately 1.5 million tourists per year (plus-minus 4000 per day) and it has 2200 permanent sta

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(The) Missing Link in Sanitation Service Delivery. A Review of Fecal Sludge Management in 12 Cities

WSP

2014

Water and Sanitation Programm (WSP)

Globally, the great majority of urban dwellers, especially poor people, rely for their sanitation on non-sewered systems that generate a mix of solid and liquid wastes generally termed fecal sludge. In poor and rapidly expanding cities, fecal sludge management represents a growing challenge, generating significant negative public health and environmental risks. Without proper management, fecal sludge is often allowed to accumulate in poorly designed pits, is discharged into storm drains and open water, or is dumped into waterways, wasteland, and unsanitary dumping sites. This research brief seeks to assess the extent of this issue, and the major constraints that need to be overcome to improve fecal sludge management. By compiling data from cities in the regions of Latin America, Africa, South Asia and East Asia and presenting them side by side the brief documents some relative key findings.

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WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP)

WHO/UNICEF

2014

WHO/UNICEF, Geneva, Switzerland

This Progress on Drinking Water and Sanitation report evaluates access to drinking-water and sanitation worldwide and progress towards related targets under Millennium Development Goal 7 "to halve, by 2015, the proportion of the population without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation". Section 1 presents the status of and trends in access to improved drinking water sources and sanitation. Section 2 provides a snapshot of inequalities in access to improved drinking water sources and sanitation. Section 3 presents efforts to strengthen monitoring of access to safe drinking water and sanitation services under a post-2015 development agenda, as well as the challenges associated with these efforts.

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Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (UNECLAC)

UN

2014

United Nations

The Handbook is a guide to pre and post disaster response management. Chapter 10 examines the implications for Water and Sanitation in 5 sections, first providing some general considerations. It then presents the procedures for estimating damage to water and sanitation systems through information on national institutions and information on each system of the sector in the affected territory. Part 3 'Estimating damage to drinking water and sanitary sewer systems, solid waste collection and disposal and flood control structures' contains 4 categorical considerations: determination and description of damage, estimation of damage, flood control works and information sources for unit costs. Part 4 'Losses in Water and Sanitation Systems' considers determination of losses and valuation of losses in water and sanitation systems. Part 5 concludes with financial needs for recovery and reconstruction.

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A micro financing framework for rural water and sanitation provisioning in Sub-Saharan Africa

Report

Mengueze, S., Mbuvi, D., Dickin, S., Schuster-Wallace, C.

2014

United Nations

This report explores a hybrid mechanism of microfinance, based on community networks and third party collateral for meso-scale loans, to provide a different financing model for small community water and sanitation supplies. Embedding these community water entities within local government structures provides a mechanism for sustainability and for eventual government management as part of the progressive realization of rights. The report approaches the question 'Why focus on rural Water and Sanitation provision in sub-Saharan Africa?' followed by details of the 'Application of microfinance to rural Water and Sanitation services' a 'Microfinance framework for rural water supply and sanitation provisioning' and conclusion

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On-site sanitation developments, presentations of Water Institute of Southern Africa (WISA) Biennial Conference in Nelspruit

WISA

2014

South Africa

The WRC has co-hosted The Sanitation Community of Practice workshop on the 28th May 2014, 8:30-12:30 Cheetah Room at Water Institute of Southern Africa (WISA) Biennial Conference in Nelspruit. The purpose of the workshop was bring together researchers and non-researchers and showcase the products that have developed over the years with regards to on-site sanitation. A number of products and technologies have been developed / are being developed; the workshop will present a platform where the research and development can be disseminated. The products will cover most aspects along the on-site sanitation chain. At the user-toilet interface, the low and pour flush application pilot studies will be presented. Technologies for faecal sludge beneficiation will also be shown including deep row entrenchment of faecal sludge and products developed from the SRFA project. The presentations for WISA Biennial are uploaded as pdf files below: 1. Deep Row Entrenchment of Sludges by Mr Dave Still, Partners in Development. 2. Pour and Low Flush Pilots by Mr Dave Still, Partners in Development. 3. The Western Cape Pour Flush Pilot by Mr Jonny Harris, Maluti GSM. 4. Characterisation of Faecal Sludge from Pour Flush Toilets by Aoife Byrne, MSc Eng student from the Pollution Research Group, Chemical Eng, UKZN. 5. Presentation about the SRFA project by Jay Bhagwan Information: The first presentation looks at deep row entrenchment as beneficiation disposal route for faecal sludge. The remaining presentations looked at the pour / low / micro flush pilots in South Africa with characterisation studies performed on the sludge and compared to VIP sludge. The noticeable aspect to come out of the research was that people liked the technology and there was little trash disposed into the leach pit from the toilet; this was mostly due to bowel design. See also here on the SuSanA Discussion Forum: http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/21-events/8528-sanitation-community-of-practice-workshop-wisa-28-may-2014-nelspruit-south-africa-pour-flush-toilets-in-south-africa#8912

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Linking Relief and Development in the WASH Sector

An Overview and Contribution to the International Debate

Gensch, R., Hansen, R., Ihme, M.

2014

German WASH Network

The paper aims to provide a more in-depth overview of existing definitions, prevalent categorisations and models that are currently being used to describe the relief to development contiguum in the WASH sector and identify existing challenges and opportunities that come along with it. It looks into the main disaster and crisis scenarios and how they affect the WASH sector. It provides definitions for the different assistance types (relief, recovery and development) and the role that WASH plays in each of them. It furthermore summarises main concepts and approaches that are being used and makes an attempt to map out the complex structures and funding mechanisms in both relief and development and identifies existing challenges and opportunities in the transition contiguum. A wide range of sector professionals have been asked to provide feedback reflecting either their individual and/or organisational views and experiences regarding current challenges, opportunities as well as recommendations for the way forward. The publication should be seen as a current snapshot of the sector at the interface between humanitarian assistance and development cooperation. It intends to foster the mutual understanding of each other’s field of work and provides impulses for fuelling the on-going international debate on how to better link relief, rehabilitation and development in the WASH sector.

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Bioconversion Reactor [Anaerobic Baffled Reactor, ABR]

Anaerobic fermentation patent

McCarty, P.L., Bachmann, A.

1992

United States Patent and Trademark Office

expired patent, published with author's permission

A bioconversion reactor for the anaerobic fermentation of organic material. The bioconversion reactor comprises a shell enclosing a predetermined volume, an inlet port through which a liquid stream containing organic materials enters the shell, and an outlet port through which the stream exits the shell. A series of vertical and spaced-apart baffles are positioned within the shell to force the stream to flow under and over them as it passes from the inlet to the outlet port. The baffles present a barrier to the microorganisms within the shell causing them to rise and fall within the reactor but to move horizontally at a very slow rate. Treatment detention times of one day or less are possible.

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The toilet tripod: Understanding successful sanitation in rural India

O’Reilly, K., Louis, E.

2014

Elsevier

Building toilets and getting people to use them is critical for public health. We deployed a political ecology approach specifically to identify the multi-scalar political, economic, and environmental factors influencing toilet adoption in rural India. The research used ethnographic and technical methods in rural villages of West Bengal and Himachal Pradesh over the period September 2012 to May 2013. The elements of successful sanitation adoption depended on three factors (i.e., toilet tripod): (1) multi-scalar political will on the part of both government and NGOs over the long term; (2) proximate social pressure, i.e., person-to-person contact between rural inhabitants and toilets; (3) political ecology, i.e., assured access to water, compatible soil type, and changing land use. This research contributes to studies of sustainable development and global public health by developing a theory and framework for successful sanitation.

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Productive Biogas - Current and Future Development

Five case studies across Vietnam, Uganda, Honduras, Mali and Peru

SNV & FACT Foundation

2014

SNV & FACT

« We have reduced our energy costs by 90% and our fertilizer costs by over 80% », explains Maria Villada, as she watches workers converting local milk into cheese for sale in regional markets of central Mexico. Five years ago, these costs, and potential environmental fines from the local government, were at the point of putting the medium-­scale dairy producer out of business. Maria Villada, however, was offered a biodigester system including a biogas motor and cheese making equipment alongside a 12-months financing package by a local productive biogas company. By treating waste, producing energy and fertilizer, and reducing its production costs, the system has been paid off in just eight months and the business’s challenges have been converted into opportunities for growth. Maria’s story provides one example of the many applications of productive biogas. This document, published in collaboration by the Fact Foundation and SNV, will outline five case studies of projects developed in Mali, Uganda, Honduras, Vietnam, and Peru, casting a light on how biogas can be a critical enabler for small businesses and institutions globally. Through this work, SNV and FACT aim to consolidate the existing knowledge on productive biogas and its various applications, and thereby contribute to the expansion and the advancement of productive biogas sectors worldwide.

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Evaluation d’une expérience d’assainissement/épuration décentralisé destinée aux centres périurbains de Casablanca : Cas du projet de Douar Rmel (in French)

Evaluation of sanitation/decentralised treatment project for peri-urban areas of Casablanca: case of Douar Rmel

Tanji, R.

2009

Mémoire de troisième cycle pour l’obtention du diplôme d’Ingénieur d’Etat en Génie Rural, Institute Agronomique et Vétérinaire Hassan II, Rabat, Royaume du Maroc

La station pilote de Douar RMEL a été construite par la Lyonnaise des Eaux de Casablanca pour tester une approche nouvelle sur l’assainissement liquide décentralisé, écologique et à faible coût. Cette approche est essentiellement destinée aux quartiers périurbains éloignés du réseau central de la ville. Le projet consiste à i) intercepter les eaux usées du Douar moyennant la mise en place d’un réseau séparatif ; les eaux pluviales étant assainies à l’aide de caniveaux construits dans les ruelles ii) épurer les eaux usées par voie écologique à proximité du douar et iii) infiltrer les eaux traitées à l’aide de puits d’infiltration en raison de l’inexistence d’un exutoire naturel près du douar. La station Rmel reçoit une moyenne de 14 m3/j. Elle comprend une fosse septique collective d’une capacité de 64 m3 et 3 filtres plantés de roseaux à écoulement vertical (FPEV) garnis de sable et plantés de roseaux de l’espèce phragmites australis. La surface des filtres est de 86 m2 chacun. Une chasse automatique est placée à l’amont pour permettre une alimentation syncopée (par bâchées) des 3 filtres. Chaque filtre est alimenté pendant 4 jours puis mis au repos pendant 8j. L’effluent final est convoyé vers deux puits d’infiltration ; douar Rmel ne possédant pas d’exutoire naturel. La superficie totale occupée par le système de traitement est de 300 m2 englobant les filtres et les ouvrages annexes. Les valeurs des principaux paramètres de pollution des eaux usées brutes de Douar Rmel montrent que ces eaux sont très chargées. Ainsi, les concentrations en DCO, DBO5, en MES et en NTK donnent les valeurs respectives de 1800, 1100, 500 et 220 toutes exprimées en mg/L. La valeur de la conductivité électrique est également très élevée avec 3980 μS/cm. Le système de traitement assure un abattement de 53% de DCO, 63% de DBO5 et 68% de MES. L’effluent final reste malgré tout très chargé comme le montrent les concentrations des principaux paramètres de pollution de l’effluent final soient : 990, 410, 130 et 180, toutes en mg/L, respectivement pour les paramètres DCO, DBO5 MES, et NTK. Ces performances plutôt insatisfaisantes révèlent des défaillances de conception. En effet, devant la concentration élevée des eaux usées brutes et l’insuffisance de la fosse septique collective, les FPRV subissent une surcharge organique importante soit, 137g/(m2.j) de DBO5, 28 g/(m2.j) de MES et une surcharge hydraulique également importante de 160 mm/j. Dans ces conditions, les FPRV ne peuvent remplir leur rôle convenablement et durablement. Il est donc proposé de ramener la charge à un niveau acceptable pour les filtres en remplaçant la fosse septique collective par un Réacteur Anaérobie à Flux Ascendant et à Deux Etapes (RAFADE) lequel est capable d’assurer l’abattement recherché. Le système proposé a été dimensionné pour ramener la charge applicable aux filtres à 24 g de DCO/(m2.j). L’unité proposée comportera deux réacteurs de 2,5 m de diamètre et 6 m de profondeur chacun, un décanteur de 4 m2 et 7 lits de séchages d’une superficie globale de 10 m2, cette unité occupera une superficie totale de 40 m2 et son coût est estimé à 200 000 DH. ++++++++++++ Lyonnaise des Eaux de Casablanca has built a decentralised wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Douar Rmel to test a new affordable sanitation approach developed for periurban components that could not be hooked to the city network. The project consists of i) intercepting wastewater by a simplified collection network; rainwater is being drained by means of surface-built trenches; ii) treating wastewater by ecological means near the component iii) convoying the treated wastewater to natural waterways or to infiltration wells. Wastewater treated in Douar Rmel plant averages 14m3/j. The plant includes a 64 m3 collective septic tank followed by three subsurface vertical flow filters (ssvf) having 86 m² each and set in parallel; they are filled with coarse sand and planted with reeds of the species Phragmites australis. The filters are dosed by means of an automatic flushing reservoir that dominates the 3 filters. Dozing is intermittent allowing each filter works for 4 days and rests for 8 others. The final effluent is convoyed to two infiltration wells, as Douar Rmel has no natural waterways nearby. The total area occupied by the treatment system and ancillary works is 300 m2. Figures from the main pollution parameters show that crude wastewater of Douar Rmel is highly concentrated as shown by COD, BOD5, TSS and TKN which are respectively 1800, 1100, 500 and 220, all expressed in mg/L. The electrical conductivity value is also high with 3980 μS / cm. The recorded organic load was 137g / (m2.d) of BOD5, 28g / (m2.d) of TSS and 30g / (m2.d) of TKN and the hydraulic load was of 160 mm/d. Obtained performances are not satisfactory denoting that incorrect influent concentrations were taken for the design. Removal efficiencies do not exceed 53% for COD; 63% for BOD5, 68% for TSS. In these conditions, The SSVF filters could not play their role in a correct and sustainable way. It is therefore proposed, for bringing the filters loads to acceptable values to substitute a two-step upflow anaerobic reactor (TSUAR) to the collective septic tank. The proposed system is designed to bring load to 24 g of COD/ (m2.d). It would include two reactors of 2.5 m diameter, 8m deep each, a settler of 4 m² and 7 sludge drying beds totalizing 10 m². The unit will require a land area of 40 m² and its cost estimated at 200,000 DH.

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A value proposition - Resource recovery from faecal sludge—Can it be the driver for improved sanitation

Diener et al.

2014

Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Elsevier

This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

Abstract There is currently a lack of access to affordable sanitation in urban areas of Sub-Saharan Africa. This study evaluated the potential for resource recovery from innovative faecal sludge treatment processes to generate a profit that could help sustain the sanitation service chain. A total of 242 interviews were conducted in Accra, Ghana; Dakar, Senegal; and Kampala, Uganda to compare markets in different cultural and regional contexts. Products identified to have potential market value include dry sludge as a fuel for combustion, biogas from anaerobic digestion, protein derived from sludge processing as animal feed,sludge as a component in building materials, and sludge as a soil conditioner. The market demand and potential revenue varied from city to city based on factors such as sludge characteristics, existing markets,local and regional industrial sectors, subsidies, and locally available materials. Use as a soil conditioner,which has been the most common end use of treated sludge, was not as profitable as other end uses. These findings should help policy and decision makers of sanitation service provision to design financially viable management systems based on resource recovery options.

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Integrated urban sanitation at scale

Discussion paper

Keipp, W., Schuen, R., Hoffmann, H.

2013

KfW Bankengruppe, Frankfurt/Main, Germany

This trilogy of working papers covers the topics of technology, finance and hygiene and gives specific recommendations for the integration of non-sewer-based sanitation in urban sanitation systems as well as recommendations for the conceptual and institutional design of hygiene promotion. The three working papers build on each other and give an introduction into the respective topics, providing further information and relevant practical knowledge in the respective annexes. The following aspects are addressed: · TECHNOLOGY: definitions, basic information, planning, operation and design alternatives. (Heike Hoffmann) · FINANCING: institutional aspects, market failures, financing instruments and economic assessment. (Richard Schuen) · HYGIENE PROMOTION: basic information, behavioral change, programme design and institutional set-up. (Waltraud Keipp) The working papers address practitioners and project managers in development cooperation and purposely do not choose a scientific representation of content. Selective reading is recommended.

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Knowledge Management and Building Demand for Sanitation

Cranston, P.

2014

Final report from a consultancy assignment for Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF) water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) program, Euforic Services, Oxford, UK

This document is the final report from a consultancy assignment focusing on Knowledge Management in the Building Demand for Sanitation (BDS) portfolio of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF) water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) program. The assignment entailed: - Surveying the participants of the 2014 annual Grantee Convening - Facilitating a consultative and ideation process during the convening on how improved KM could contribute to program and Grantee goals - Meeting with BMGF staff in Seattle to share the KM requirements and issues that had emerged from the convening - Developing options for a BDS KM program of activities that aligns with other current KM activities within the Foundation. In the document we describe our approach to KM, the background and context for the consultancy assignment, the output from the Grantee survey, the activities and outputs from the convening, the post-workshop debriefing meetings in Seattle, and the KM options that have been developed through synthesis of these various inputs. The BDS portfolio has a relatively small number of grantees (around 24) but its focus spans a wide range of development challenges including community behavior change, government policy and advocacy, technology and product development, affordable financing, and product marketing. The BDS portfolio has mainly relied upon face-to-face workshops (“grantee convenings”) during which information and progress updates are shared, as well as email; however, there is no formal system for managing information that BDS grantees generate. KM had surfaced as an issue before and during the 2013 BDS convening. A small amount of time was allocated to discussions in the 2013 meeting and there was consensus that the issue should be explored further.3 It was agreed that the BMGF WSH team would develop a Terms of Reference (ToR) for a KM project within the BDS portfolio, with input from grantees. The draft ToR was available for the 2014 Nairobi convening. The two objectives described in the ToR set the framework for reviewing KM in BDS: 1) Enhance WSH grantee knowledge sharing for the BDS portfolio. Improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the Building Demand for Sanitation initiative’s knowledge sharing mechanisms and platforms, and strengthen uptake of effective approaches among its grantees.4 2) Improve knowledge and information management of, and access to Foundation WSH information. Plan and design a system to organize and annotate WSH resources and to make these resources readily available to grantees as well as to the public.

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Hydraulic and removal efficiencies of horizontal flow treatment wetlands

Fonder, N.

2010

PhD Thesis, Université de Liège Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, Gembloux, Belgium

The hydraulic and removal efficiencies of a Horizontal Flow Treatment Wetlands (HF TW) were investigated through an internal three dimensional grid of sampling ports. Tracer tests and regular monitoring of water quality parameters were performed. Results demonstrated that the HF TW has generally good hydraulic and volumetric efficiencies, with relatively low dead zones. The application of models developed by chemical engineering provided the number of tanks in series and the calculated detention times which were input as parameters in the multi flow with dispersion hydraulic model. This second model identified that water fluxes were not homogeneous with depth inside the TW and 60% of the flow was along the bottom layer of the bed. It also indicated the water flow velocities, which were faster on the bottom of the bed, and the axial dispersion, which was higher where flow velocity was lower. The reviewed inflow rate distribution allowed review for all layers of the nominal detention time and of the hydraulic indexes, which are developed by the chemical engineering theory, and based on the incorrect assumption of homogeneous systems. The P-k-C* degradation model was applied in order to define degradation k-rate values of BOD and COD and the frequency distribution profiles were developed. The degradation rate coefficients for BOD ranked from less than 10 m/yr to more than 300 m/yr. Significant higher degradation rates were observed for all the bottom layers and for the closest sampling line from the inlet. The results of COD were similar to those observed for BOD. Finally, the specific pollutants of nitrogen and phosphorus were analysed for total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP). The global trend of the TN degradation coefficient values was a slow and regular decrease over length, having systematically higher degradation coefficients for the bottom layers. The saturation of the media sites for sorption capacity of TP was demonstrated being in progress.

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Sanivation and MoSan Toilet

4 week Service Pilot in Karagita Naivasha, Kenya

Mijthab M., Woods E., Lokey H., Foote A., Rieck. C

2013

GIZ and Sanivation

Having worked in Naivasha since November, 2012 the Sanivation team became aware that in-home toilets could provide an alternative solution to the standard pit latrines in the area. Sanitation practices in the area, while not as dire as some areas of Kenya, include the use of expensive and often unclean outdoor pit latrines, which often leave residence (especially women and the disabled) feeling unsafe and uncomfortable. To address these expressed concerns, Sanivation, Hana Lokey and Emily Woods collaborated with Mona Mijthab, the designer or the MoSan mobile toilet, to conduct a 4-week pilot test of the toilet and the sanitation service in peri-urban villages of Mirera and Karagita outside Naivasha, Kenya. Within this report, “the team” will be used for some combination of Hana, Emily and Mona. The goal of Mona is to further develop the design and the usability of the MoSan toilet and improve it’s performance within the service. Therefore user feedback was collected throughout the pilot phase. Overall, the goal of the pilot was to evaluate the scalability of the sanitation service. Specifically the team wanted to explore and improve: 1. User friendliness and acceptance of a household toilet 2. Efficiency of the sanitation service, including house-to-house collection and solar treatment 3. An evaluation tool for in-home toilets*

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Optimierung der Abwasserreinigung durch Biogasverwertung auf der Kläranlage Ben Sergao/Agadir, Marokko (in German)

Optimisation of wastewater treatment via biogas utilisation at the WWTP Ben Sergao/Agadir, Morocco

Driouache, A. H.

1999

PhD Thesis, Fakultät für Bauingenieur- und Vermessungswesen der Universität Fridericiana zu Karlsruhe (TH), Germany

Die Kläranlage Ben Sergao ist für 750 m³ Abwasser pro Tag (10.000 EW) ausgelegt, für die Hälfte der jetzigen Einwohnerzahl des Ortes. Das Abwasser der weiteren 10.000 Einwohner wird direkt in ein Speicherbecken auf dem Gelände geleitet, wo es versickert. Die Kläranlage besteht aus einem Absetzteich (1.500 m³) und fünf Langsamsandfiltern (7.500 m²). Der Einsatz einer aeroben Stufe (Tropfkörper oder Scheibentauchkörper) zwischen der Vorklärung und den Sandfiltern würde eine Kpazitätserhöhung der Kläranlage ermöglichen. Hierin besteht die Lösung zur Reinigung der Gesamtheit der Abwässer des Ortes (1.500 m³/d). Die notwendige Energie würde dabei aus Biogas produziert, das sich in der Vorklärung bildet. Dies kann vielfältige Vorteile bieten: · Energieerzeugung, · Verminderung der Emission störender Gerüche, · Verringerung des Flächenbedarfs der Sandfilter, · Abwasser- und Schlammverwertung. Für diesen Zweck wurden im Rahmen dieser Arbeit die Biogasproduktion in der Vorklärung, die Leistung eines Tropfkörpers mit nachgeschaltetem Sandfilter sowie die Reinigungsgrade eines Scheibentauchkörpers unter den örtlichen Bedingungen untersucht. Der Einsatz eines Sandfilters als dritte Reinigungsstufe nach der biologischen Reinigung bringt den Vorteil mit sich, daß die Filtergeschwindigkeit erhöht wird (im Vergleich zu den großen Sandfiltern der Kläranlage Ben Sergao, deren Filtergeschwindigkeitsgrenze bei 0,1 m/d liegt) und so die Filterfläche und das Filtervolumen reduziert werden können. Durch Vorschalten des Tropfkörpers vor den Sandfilter konnte die Filtergeschwindigkeit 3,6 mal erhöht oder die Filterfläche 3,6 mal verringert werden. Zur Auswahl der Verfahrenskette für die Optimierung der Kläranlage Ben Sergao wurde auch die Wirtschaftlichkeit von drei vorgeschlagenen Varianten für 20.000 Einwohner, auf der Grundlage von Jahreskosten verglichen. 1. Variante A: Absetzteich mit Biogasproduktion + Sandfilter 2. Variante B: Absetzteich mit Biogasproduktion + Scheibentauchkörper + Sandfilter 3. Variante C: Absetzteich mit Biogasproduktion + Tropfkörper + Sandfilter ++++++++++++ A related presentation (in French) from 2003 by Marc Wauthelet is also available below.

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Ein kleine Sensibilisierung für das Thema Sanitärversorgung für Grundschulkinder (in German)

Sensibilisation for the topic of sanitation for primary school children

von Muench, E.

2014

Presentation at a primary school in Germany

This presentation was used during two lesson hours (2 x 45 minutes) at a school in Germany, to create some awareness amongst the school children (10 years old) about the importance of wastewater treatment in Germany (including flaws of the current system) and of sanitation issues in developing countries. It includes links to videos that were used in the lesson. If you need to do something similar please feel free to use and adapt these slides, or to share your own presentation with us! E-mail: susana@giz.de or post them on the forum here: http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/54-wg-1-cap-development

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Charakteristik von Toilettenpapier vor dem Hintergrund seiner gezielten Hydrolyse (in German)

Characeristics of toilet paper in the context of targeted hydrolysis

Niebel, S.

2010

Bachelor Thesis, Faculty for Civil Engineering at Bauhaus-University Weimar, Germany

Description (in German): Für die Optimierung der Abwasserbehandlung an PWC-Anlagen, die mit einem starken Überangebot an Stickstoff kämpfen, ist nach Quellen für frei verfügbare Kohlenstoffe gesucht worden. Als eine Möglichkeit kommt der gezielte Einsatz von Toilettenpapier in Frage. Toilettenpapier enthält vorwiegend Cellulose, die nicht wasserlöslich und schlecht aufschließbar ist. Der Beitrag von Toilettenpapier zum Anteil an frei verfügbaren Kohlenstoffen im Abwasser wird in der Literatur zumeist vernachlässigt, nur einige Andeutungen und Hinweise sowie zwei konkrete Zahlen konnten gefunden werden. Diese sollten im Labor geprüft werden. Es gibt Hinweise aus einer Kläranlage, dass die Einleitung von Abwasser aus einer altpapierverarbeitenden Papierfabrik in direktem Zusammenhang mit der Denitrifizierungsleistung der Kläranlage steht. Für weitere Aussagen könnten die Abwässer der Papierfabrik beprobt und ausgewertet werden. Angaben zu den Unterschieden der Kohlenstofffrachten in den unterschiedlichen Papieren konnten nicht gefunden werden. Deshalb kann im Moment eine Entscheidung für ein bestimmtes Papier nur auf der Basis des Auflösevermögens gemacht werden. Aus diesem Grund wurde die Papierherstellung in dieser Arbeit genauer betrachtet, um Hinweise auf die Abhängigkeit der Wahl der Ausgangsstoffe und der Herstellungsprozesse in Bezug auf das Auflösevermögen zu erhalten. Beidessind Faktoren, die die Papiereigenschaften beeinflussen, wobei die Wahl des Ausgangsstoffes etwas stärker wiegt. Als am besten abbaubar werden ungebleichte, sehr dünne Toilettenpapiere eingeschätzt, die nach Möglichkeit aus Altpapier hergestellt sind, dabei eine niedrige Grammatur besitzen und aus nur ein bis zwei Lagen bestehen. Dabei sind jedoch auch einige Widersprüche aufgetreten, die weiterverfolgt werden sollten. An PWC-Anlagen werden erfahrungsgemäß bereits überwiegend solche dünnen RC-Papiere, die teilweise an ihrer grauen Färbung erkannt werden können, verwendet. Eine Steigerung der Denitrifikation ist durch die Wahl der Papierart daher momentan nicht zu erwarten. Außerdem wurden weitere Kriterien wie Umweltverträglichkeit, Hygiene das Format des Papiers und die Kosten in die Bewertung einbezogen. Daraus resultiert die Empfehlung verschiedener Papiersorten unterschiedlicher Hersteller für eine weitergehende Prüfung im Labor auf die Tauglichkeit für den Einsatz an PWC-Anlagen. Dezentrale Anlagen, wie PWC-Anlagen, haben oft nur sehr kurze Fließwege, es kommt zu keiner mechanischen Zersetzung des Papiers. Eine Zerkleinerung durch Zuführung von Energie erscheint nicht zweckmäßig. An dieser Stelle muss der Ansatz von leicht zersetzbaren Produkten, die zum Teil mit speziellen Bakterienstämmen besprüht werden, weiterverfolgt werden. Die Bakterien arbeiten, sobald sie über einen längeren Zeitraum mit Wasser in Verbindung kommen, und bauen Cellulose ab. Weitere Untersuchungen sollten prüfen, inwieweit die Abbauprodukte dieser Bakterien von Denitrifikanten als Nahrungsquelle genutzt werden können.

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Rapport d’évaluation des centres de Co-traitement des déchets ménagers mis en place à Missour, Oulmès et Tiflet (in French)

Evaluation report of centres for co-treatment of household wastes at à Missour, Oulmès et Tiflet

Soudi, B.

2003

Consultancy report for ENDA Maghreb

Le présent rapport s’inscrit dans le cadre d’une mission d’évaluation des Contres de Co - traitement des déchets ménagers mis en place par Enda Maghreb dans les localités de Missour, Oulmès et Tiflet. L’accent a été mis essentiellement sur la composante relative au compostage et à la valorisation du compost. Les autres aspects de récupération des matériaux recyclables sont traités de manière secondaire car ils ont fait l’objet d’études spécifiques. Des ébauches de réflexion sur les aspects institutionnels, organisationnelles et de gestion ont été initiés dans le présent rapport. Ces aspects seront approfondis dans le cadre d’un atelier qui réunira les différents départements concernés et dont l’objectif consistera en la proposition d’un schéma organisationnel et institutionnel qui permettra de concrétiser et pérenniser la mise ne place de projets intégrés de co-traitement des déchets. Les nouvelles donnes relatives à la loi sur les déchets, la loi sur l’eau 10 – 95, la nouvelle charte communale et la nouvelle architecture des ministères concernés seront prises en compte. Suite à cet exercice d’évaluation, on peut déduire que la démarche adoptée par Enda maghreb à travers les projets de CCT est originale par son caractère participatif et communautaire, par la méthodologie basée sur l’initiation d’une prise en charge progressive, et par le caractère intégré de gestion de déchets ménagers. L’adoption d’une filière composite dite de co-traitement, est de nature à permettre un traitement total des déchets tout en valorisant la fraction organique et les matières recyclables. Cette option peut être qualifiée d’écologiquement durable. Les expérimentations agronomiques, conduites dans le cadre des conventions avec les institutions de recherche, constituent une bonne initiative qui s’inscrit dans une démarche qualité. Toutefois, et indépendamment de quelques lacunes et limitations associées aux essais, ces expérimentations ont été planifiées de manière prématurée dans le temps. En effet, il conviendrait au préalable de maîtriser et standardiser le processus de compostage depuis le tri jusqu’à la phase de maturation afin d’obtenir un compost qui répond aux normes standards de qualité. Des essais culturaux de démonstration seront conduits par la suite chez des clients potentiels. Ces essais auront pour objectifs de démontrer l’innocuité du produit et sa valeur organique et minérale dans différentes situations culturales.

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Manuel d’utilisation des boues résiduaires issues des stations d’épuration des eaux usées : Etat de l’art et tentatives d’adaptation aux pays de Proche Orient (in French)

Manual for reuse of sludge from wastewater treatment plants: State of the art and attempts to adapt to countries of the Middle East

Soudi, B.

2003

Consultancy report for FAO, Morocco

Le présent manuel a tenté de faire le point sur les filières de traitement et d’évacuation des boues. Il en résultait que toutes les filières présentent des avantages et des inconvénients sur les plans technique, économique et écologique. Il n’existe pas de solution parfaite. Il a été toutefois démontré qu’un usage rationnel des boues, en tant que produit d’amendement organique des sols, constitue une option écologiquement durable qui consiste à réinsérer la matière organique dans les chaînes trophiques. L’option relative à l’incinération des boues ne se justifie pas sur le plan technico-économique et environnemental. L’option de mise en décharge contrôlée peut être retenue lorsque les possibilités de valorisation des boues ne sont pas offertes ou lorsque les boues sont très chargées en éléments traces. Pour le contexte de la région du proche orient, les options de traitement de boues les plus justifiées sur les plans économiques et écologiques sont le séchage prolongé des boues dans des lits de séchage et/ou le compostage des boues ou leur co-compostage avec d’autres déchets biodégradables (déchets verts, déchets ménagers et déchets de l'industrie agroalimentaire). Soulignons que dans ces régions, la faible activité industrielle en zones rurales et dans les petites et moyennes communes, fait que le problème de métaux lourds se pose avec moins d’acuité que les grands centres urbains. Si le séchage ou le compostage permettent d’anéantir les risques sanitaires liés aux pathogènes, la contrainte relative aux éléments traces métalliques demeure posée et nécessite d’être gérée. Après une mise en point sur les normes en vigueur à l’échelle internationale, des normes guides, exprimées en terme de Teneurs Cumulatives Limites dans le sol, sont proposées. Les principaux paramètres de sol pris en compte, en relation avec le risque de pollution métallique et de transfert des éléments traces dans les chaînes trophiques, sont le pH, la Capacité d’Echange cationique et la texture du sol. Notons que les sols de la région du proche orient sont dans la majorité des cas de pH neutre à franchement basique. Ces conditions atténuent les risques d’accumulation des éléments traces dans les plantes à cause de leur faible solubilité dans ces conditions de pH. +++++++++++++ This document is old, we are in preparation of a new guide manual in the framework of FAO-ONEE - Branche Eau. But it contains interesting info.

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Valorisation des eaux non conventionnelles: Renforcement de l’offre et mesure d’adaptation au changement climatique dans les zones arides, Cas du Maroc (in French)

Development of non-conventional water: Strengthening the supply and adaptation measures to climate change in arid zones, Case of Morocco

Soudi, B.

2013

Consultancy report for FAO, Morocco

Aux termes de cette synthèse, on peut d’emblée affirmer qu’une prise de conscience est manifeste au niveau de la sphère décisionnelle quant aux opportunités de valorisation des eaux non conventionnelles au Maroc. Ce constat peut être étayé par la déclinaison de la stratégie nationale de l’eau en objectifs opérationnels avec une feuille de route chiffrée en matière de valorisation des eaux usées conventionnelles (eaux usées et eaux saumâtres). Les opportunités sont éminentes : i) le Plan national d’assainissement génère, selon un rythme accéléré, un potentiel important des eaux usées traitées et affiche une évolution intéressante en matière du taux d’épuration ; moins de 8% en 2008 et plus de 30% aujourd’hui, ii) un réseau de nappes saumâtres déminéralisables a été identifié, et iii) des stations de déminéralisation de l’eau de mer ont été mises en place et d’autres en cours. L’ensemble de ces opportunités se superposent aux différents écosystèmes agro-écologiques et aux zones à déficit climatique et celles menacées par la désertification.

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Guide technique de réutilisation en agriculture des eaux usées épurées et des boues des stations d’épuration (in French)

Technical Guide to reuse in agriculture of treated wastewater and sewage sludge

Soudi, B., Xanthoulis, D.

2007

Convention FAO/UTF/MOR023/MOR Assistance technique au programme de développement de l’alimentation de l’eau potable rurale et de l’assainissement, ONEP, FAO, Morocco

Suite à la réalisation par l’ONEP des stations d’épuration, plusieurs demandes de réutilisation des eaux usées épurées (REUE) parviennent à l’Office de la part des agriculteurs qui utilisaient auparavant les eaux usées brutes et/ou des agriculteurs pour lesquels la pérennité des eaux usées épurées a suscité un nouveau intérêt. Pour être conforme à la Loi sur l’Eau 10-95, l’ONEP, au même titre que les régies et les concessionnaires, est appelé à traiter les eaux jusqu’à un niveau tel que les compositions des effluents soient conformes aux normes de rejets. Cependant, selon la directive relative à la qualité des eaux destinées à l’irrigation qui définit, en trois niveaux de qualité des eaux les cultures à irriguer, la qualité des eaux épurées conforme à la norme de rejets ne permet pas une irrigation non restrictive. Devant cette situation, et dans le but de promouvoir la réutilisation des eaux usées épurées (REUE), des traitements complémentaires peuvent être appliqués pour élargir la liste des cultures à promouvoir. Cela devrait rendre la REUE plus attractive et capable de générer des gains agronomiques significatifs en termes de rendements des cultures et de valeur marchande des produits agricoles tout en écartant les risques sanitaires. Aussi, et afin de répondre aux demandes croissantes de la REUE à l’aval des stations d’épuration, les Directions Régionales de l’ONEP, ayant pour mandat de mettre en oeuvre des projets de réutilisation des eaux usées, ont un besoin pressant et effectif d’un support technique, sous - forme de guide, leur permettant de disposer des éléments de réponse avec la démarche à suivre pour mettre en place ces projets. Ainsi, c’est dans le cadre de l’Assistance Technique de la FAO qu’il a été décidé de produire un guide technique et pratique traitant les différents volets de mise en place d’un projet de REUE depuis la planification du projet jusqu’à la gestion du périmètre de réutilisation. Des propositions concernant l’usage rationnel des EUE et des boues sera également émis en tenant compte des spécificités agro-pédologiques, climatiques, socio-économiques et environnementales du contexte marocain. Des éléments pratiques relatés dans des encadrés jouent le rôle de coffres à outils qui offrent à l’utilisateur de ce guide des enseignements précieux en matière de réutilisation des eaux usées et des boues.

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Infiltration des eaux usées épurées par drains de dispersion (in French)

Infiltration of treated wastewater by leach fields

AIVE

2010

AIVE, Aide aux communes, Arlon, Belgium

Le guide pratique relatif à l’infiltration des eaux usées épurées réalisé par la Région wallonne est une aide utile pour la mise en place de drains de dispersion. Les conditions intégrales relatives aux unités et installations d’épuration individuelle et les conditions sectorielles relatives aux stations d’épuration individuelle et aux systèmes d’épuration individuelle installés en dérogation au raccordement à l’égout, imposent l’infiltration des eaux usées épurées pour les systèmes d’épuration individuelle de moins de 100 équivalentshabitants (EH) sauf si cela s’avère impossible au terme d’un test de perméabilité. L’infiltration des eaux épurées par drains de dispersion doit donc être la priorité. Cependant dans certains cas ce mode d’évacuation ne pourra pas être envisagé en raison de contraintes techniques ou environnementales. Dans ce contexte, l’objectif de cette note est d’établir la liste des critères auxquels il faut être attentif lors du choix du mode d’évacuation des eaux épurées en sortie d’un système d’épuration individuelle d’une capacité de moins de 100 EH. +++++++ And a second related file from 2008: Arrêté du Gouvernement wallon fixant les conditions intégrales relatives aux unités d'épuration individuelle et aux installations d'épuration individuelle Available online here: http://environnement.wallonie.be/legis/pe/peintegr035.htm

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Public Funding for Sanitation

The many faces of sanitation subsidies

Evans, B., van der Voorden, C., Peal, A.

2009

Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC), Geneva, Switzerland

Sanitation is one of the most significant development challenges of our time. Over 700 million Indians are forced to defecate in the open, and in Africa the number of people without sanitation has actually grown in the past decade. There is little doubt that better financing is required, along with better ways of spending the money, addressing what really needs to be done. This distinct lack of funds means a clear understanding of the entire pattern of public financial assistance and subsidies available is crucial. In a response to requests from our National WASH Coalitions, WSSCC compiled this resource for all those who work in sanitation and seek sustainable and effective strategies for delivering sanitation to those who need it most. Pulling together the latest thinking and knowledge on sanitation financing, this primer aims to clarify the terminology and language used in the debate about public financing of sanitation and subsidies in particular. All the main areas are covered in the following areas: Part 1, ‘How does Public Funding of Sanitation Work?’, discusses what needs to be financed and the sources of financing for sanitation programmes as a whole, introducing the concepts and principles by which public funds can be allocated. Part 2, ‘The Debate on Sanitation Subsidies’, summarizes the main arguments ‘for’ and ‘against’ subsidies (particularly hardware subsidies), before offering details on the general principles which can promote good financial design of sanitation programmes. Part 3, ‘Types of Subsidies’, looks at the financing available for software activities. The ten types of hardware subsidies commonly used and examples of their application are detailed with insights into their advantages and disadvantages. Part 4, ‘Smart Financing of Sanitation Systems’, takes four generic sanitation systems and their technical options to explore what the real-life options for financing both their capital and operational costs are, considering private, public and blended financing in each case. These four parts combine to deliver an understanding of the global debate on subsidies and sanitation financing, providing guidance on how to select the most appropriate funding arrangements in different situations. About the publisher The Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC) is a global multi-stakeholder partnership and membership organization that works to save lives and improve livelihoods. It does so by enhancing collaboration among sector agencies and professionals who are working to provide sanitation to the 2.6 billion people without a clean, safe toilet, and the 884 million people without affordable, clean drinking water close at hand. Through its work, WSSCC contributes to the broader goals of poverty eradication, health and environmental improvement, gender equality and long-term social and economic development. It has coalitions in 36 countries, members in more than 160 countries, and a Geneva-based Secretariat which is hosted by the United Nations Office for Project Services (UNOPS). www.wsscc.org

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Systematisation of Health and Environmental Education in Bolivia

Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Agua de Bolivia, GIZ

Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Agua de Bolivia, GIZ

The GIZ developed actions to improve the quality of water and sanitation services in Bolivia through the implementation of the Cooperation programme for water and sanitation in small and medium cities (Programa de agua potable y alcantarillado sanitario en pequeñas y medianas ciudades - PROAPAC). The programme was mainly focused on the regions of Chaco and North of Potosí and supported operators in the consolidation of water and sanitation services, as well as in the sensitization on the importance of the project for social organisations at the local level. To implement the educational process, PROAPAC assumed that health and environmental education is a process that involves information, reflection and assimilation of new healthy ways of living through a change of habits. It intended to mobilise children, teachers, parents and authorities to incorporate good hygiene practices and raise awareness of the efficient use of water and the shared responsibility to preserve the environment. During the 1990s the Vice-Ministry of Basic Sanitation had developed a story called “Mariquita la Cochinita” (Mariquita the Filthy) that was not widespread. This story served as a basis to create the materials for the programme, especially for the conception of further stories to sensitise and train children on different topics such as hygiene, rubbish disposal, gender, environment, toilet care, and hand-washing among others, using the literary genre of the story as the main instrument to reach children through a simple and understandable language that at the same time allows family to gather to read and learn. Teachers, key actors for the education of future generations, were also trained and given support and reference material.

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Fluidisation of synthetic pit latrine sludge

Radford, J.

Fourth-year undergraduate project in Group D, 2010/2011, Cranfield University, UK

The first phase of the investigation involved the development of the synthetic sludge and a process for its physical characterisation. Reference data on the physical characteristics of pit latrine sludge were obtained from a study done by the International Reference Centre for Waste Disposal in Botswana during the 1980s. A synthetic sludge consisting of clay and compost was developed to replicate these characteristics. Undrained shear strength and density were identified as the critical parameters controlling 'pumpability'. It was found that for a given solid composition of sludge, water content correlates strongly with undrained shear strength, and by varying its water content the full range of reported sludge shear strengths could be achieved. The density of the synthetic sludge was found to be significantly lower than that reported by the IRCWD, with a difference in means of around 300kg/m3. This is due to the low density of the organic matter in compost, and claystabilised soil has been proposed as a possible alternative synthetic sludge with higher density. It was not possible to determine the effect of solid composition on sludge flow behaviour due to difficulty in controlling water content when different solid compositions were used. The variability in water content of the compost used in the sludge also prevented the development of an absolute 'recipe' for different strengths of sludge and certain amount of experimentation will therefore always be required when developing synthetic sludge from locally available materials. Nevertheless, the synthetic sludge mixture was deemed suitable to investigate the effect of fluidisation. The reduction in sludge shear strength from fluidisation was found to be caused by two effects – dilution, which increases water content, and remoulding, which involves mechanical agitation to break down the structure of the material. A one-fifth scale pit emptying device, powered by two modified vacuum cleaners, was used to carry out the fluidisation tests. The first series of tests was done on a uniform sludge and demonstrated that fluidisation by dilution alone was feasible, however a 23% increase in water content was required to make a strong sludge 'pumpable'. Samples were then left to consolidate before being characterised, producing a material more representative of that found in a pit latrine. Injecting air into these samples produced a three-fold decrease in strength as a result of remoulding at constant water content. The large increase in water content during fluidisation by dilution causes a large increase in volume which would probably be impractical as there would be insufficient space in the pit. One solution could be to suck weak supernatant off the top of the pit for fluidisation, thereby eliminating the volume increase, however this has associated health risks as the supernatant is heavily contaminated with pathogens. Fortunately this may not be necessary in many cases as air-blown remoulding alone would be sufficient to fluidise all but the strongest of sludges. The implications for sludge treatment and disposal have been discussed, with the increase in volume and solids content of the sludge removable from the pit potentially encouraging illegal dumping if not managed carefully. It has also been proposed that sludges should be classified according to the equipment required to remove them from the latrine, and possible field tests have been suggested to estimate sludge density and shear strength. The performance of the equipment used in the laboratory greatly exceeded expectations. This serves as a proof of concept that cheap and easily replaceable vacuum cleaners could be used to replace the expensive vane pumps currently used in most suction-based pit emptying technologies. Finally, various suggestions have been made for further work, including the development of a synthetic sludge that is more representative of pit latrine sludge and fullscale fluidisation trials using both synthetic and actual pit latrine sludge to validate the findings of this investigation.

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NEWgenerator(TM) for recovery of nutrients, energy and water from human wastes

Various documents on results from research grant

Yeh, D.

2013

University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida, USA

This library entry contains background documents for a grant that Daniel Yeh is leading and which is funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Further information and a discussion is available on the SuSanA discussion forum: http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/7834-newgenerator-for-recovery-of-nutrients-energy-and-water-from-excreta-uni-of-south-florida-usa-anaerobic-membrane-bioreactor-field-tests-now-in-kerala-india Short description of the project: The NEWgenerator is a compact and robust resource recovery machine that is paired with pit latrines, septic tanks, fecal sludge pits and self-standing toilets to treat, recycle and harvest embedded nutrients, energy and water in human wastes. It is intended for “wet pits” from communities that utilize water for washing or flushing, which renders the fecal sludge too wet for combustion processes such as pyrolysis for biochar. The NEWgenerator is a hybrid anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) machine which is packaged in a small-footprint modular housing for off-grid deployment. Unlike its more common aerobic (activated sludge) MBR counterpart, the AnMBR does not require aeration (less energy to operate), produces 90% less microbial biomass (less handling) and recovers (rather than remove) nutrients such as NPK. Key processes of the NEWgenerator include: high-rate anaerobic digestion for rapid waste solids disintegration and high-level pathogen destruction (e.g., against Giardia and Ascaris), membrane ultrafiltration (sub-micron) of reactor solids and colloids to liberate pathogen-safe clean water and nutrients, permeate (clean water) collection and storage, biogas collection and electricity generation, and associated ruggedized sensors, data loggers and micro-controllers. Goal(s): The overall goal of the project is to develop an affordable, highly efficient, robust, reliable, off-grid, closed-loop sanitation system for harvesting energy, water and nutrients from waste urban biomass, both post-consumer (feces and urine) and pre-consumer (food waste). Research or implementation partners: Working with Eram Scientific Solutions (Kerala, India), we are targeting opportunities for field testing of a combined eToilet + NEWgenerator as an integrated system for human waste harvesting and conversion to nutrients, energy and water. +++++++++++ Documents available for download below: 1 - Presentation on NEWGenerator (FSM-2 Conference in Durban, South Africa, Oct. 2012) 2 - GCE Phase I Scientific Report (April 2013) ? 3 - Short presentation at SEI webinar (29 April 2014)

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Gestion des boues des stations d’épuration au Maroc : Quantification, caractérisation et options de traitement et de valorisation (in French)

Management of sludge from wastewater treatment plants in Morocco: Quantification, characterization and treatment options and recovery

Hamdani, I.

2008

Mémoire de Troisième Cycle, Royaume du Maroc Institute Agronomique et Veterinaire Hassan II – Rabat Maroc

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Epuration et réutilisation des eaux usées à des fins agricoles (in French)

Treatment and reuse of wastewater for agricultural purposes

MADRPM

1998

Ministère de l'Agriculture du Développement Rural et des Pêches Maritimes, Administration du Génie Rural & Office Régional de Mise en Valeur Agricole de Ouarzazate, Maroc

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Sharm El-Sheikh commitments

for accelerating the achievement of water and sanitation goals in Africa

African Union

2008

Assembly of the African Union, Eleventh Ordinary Session, Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt

Sharm El-Sheikh commitments for accelerating the achievement of water and sanitation goals in Africa. The Heads of State and Government of the African Union, meeting at the 11th Ordinary Session of the Assembly in Sharm El-Sheikh, Arab Republic of Egypt, from 30 June to 1 July 2008.

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Guide pratique pour techniciens: Assainissement rural (in French)

Practical guide for technicians: rural sanitation

Naji, S.

1990

Ecole Mohammadia d'Ingénieurs, Maroc

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Improving Sanitation Outcomes through Service Level Agreements: A Guidance Note

Report to the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation

Castalia Strategic Advisors

2014

Castalia Limited

Castalia has prepared this Guidance Note to help city-level teams design and implement contractual solutions to improve the delivery of urban sanitation services. To ensure that the contracts provide lasting solutions that overcome the problems encountered in the past, they identify the economic characteristics that make sanitation service delivery particularly challenging. They also explain how contracts can be structured to reflect these characteristics, and how cities can manage the process of procuring and managing service providers.

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Reinvent the Toilet Challenge, Delhi, India

Program and Technical Guides

BMGF

2014

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, USA

Featuring partners of key Government of India ministries, and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the fair showcased innovative products and approaches that aim to bring safe, affordable, and sustainable sanitation to those who need it most. These include efforts to create toilets that are not connected to water, sewer, or electricity; to improve the collection, treatment, and disposal of human waste; to address behavior change; and to raise awareness of this critical issue for governments, stakeholders, and local communities. This year’s fair in New Delhi was co-hosted by the Government of India’s Department of Biotechnology and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, with the support of India’s Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation, Ministry of Urban Development, and Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation. India is uniquely positioned to be a global leader in the development of new sanitation technologies and a range of other innovative approaches to achieve sustainable gains in sanitation in India and abroad. ++++++++++++++ The following projects are included in the Technical Guides with 2-page factsheets: 5 Aerosan 7 American Standard Brands 8 Arghyam 11 Asian Institute of Technology 13 Beijing SunnyBreeze Technology Inc. 15 Biofilcom 17 California Institute of Technology (Caltech) 19 Centre for Advocacy and Research (CFAR) 21 Centre for Environmental Planning and Technology (CEPT) University 23 Center for Study of Science, Technology and Policy (CSTEP) 25 Centre for Policy Research, New Delhi 27 Climate Foundation, Cornell University, Sanergy, Tide Technocrats, and the Prasino Group 29 Cranfield University - Nano-Membrane Toilet 31 Defence Research Laboratory, DRDO, Indian Ministry of Defence 33 Delft University of Technology 35 Department of Industrial Design, SPA Delhi 37 Duke University 39 Duke University and the University of Missouri 41 Eawag (Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology), Design by EOOS - Blue Diversion 43 Eram Scientific Solutions Pvt. Ltd. - eToilet 45 FSOI Development Firms: AGI Engineering, Beaumont Design, DCI Automation, and Synapse Product Development - Omni-Ingestor 47 Fundación In Terris and Critical Practices LLC - Earth Auger Toilet 49 Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur 51 Institute for Financial Management and Research (IFMR) and Quicksand Design Studio 53 IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre 55 Janicki Industries 57 Loowatt 59 Loughborough University 61 National University of Singapore (NUS) 63 North Carolina State University - The Excravator 65 Pollution Research Group, University of KwaZulu-Natal; eThekwini Water and Sanitation, eThekwini Municipality 67 Population Services International (PSI), Water For People, and PATH 69 RTI International 71 Sanergy 73 Santec 77 SCOPE 75 Sesame Workshop 79 Stone India Limited 81 Sulabh International Social Service Organisation (SISSO); Sulabh Sanitation & Social Reform Movement 83 UNICEF India 85 Unilever 87 University College London and ifak 89 University of Colorado Boulder - Sol-Char toilet 91 University of Toronto 93 University of the West of England (UWE), Bristol - Urine-tricity (electricity from urine) 95 WASH United and World Toilet Organization 97 World Bank Water and Sanitation Program, International Finance Corporation, and Kenyan Ministry of Health 99 3S – A Division of Saraplast Pvt. Ltd.

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A low flush latrine for public schools

Lessons from two school pilots

Water Research Commision (WRC), Gezina ZA

2014

WRC

Pour flush and low flush sanitation systems bridge the gap between on-site dry sanitation and full waterborne sanitation sustainably. Using a small amount of tap water or grey water (1-2.5ℓ) to flush, a pour system can terminate in a simple soak away. This overcomes the problems involved with laying sewers to widely spaced rural homes or tightly spaced informal settlements, represents an large saving of water over regular waterborne sewage – a loss which is compounded if hardware begins to leak -- and provides a number of the benefits of a flush toilet. While pour flush technology is used widely in Asia, it had not been tested in South Africa, and trials with low flush systems had mixed success. The Water Research Commission has developed two new innovations in this regard: • The pour flush pedestal which uses a minimum 1L to flush • The low flush pedestal, based on the pour flush design which uses a 1.5L flush The pour flush system was tested successfully in the field at 20 private homes and at a crèche. However, in order to succeed in an institutional setting such as a school or public ablution facility, the technology would need to include a cistern so that users would not be required to fill buckets in order to flush. This prototype, called the low flush system, was developed, and tested by the WRC.

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Sanitation Matters - The sanitation research fund for Africa

A magazine for Southern Africa - Issue No.5 - March 2014

WIN-SA

2014

Water Information Network, Gezina, South Africa

We look at the Sanitation Research Fund for Africa (SRFA) Project, a joint fund established by the Water Research Commission and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. The purpose of the project is to provide impetus for scientific based knowledge and practical solutions to the many unintended technical and operational challenges of pit latrine technologies in peri-urban areas in sub-Saharan Africa. A total of 8 sub-Saharan countries have been selected for the fund with the first project workshop held from the 30th to 31st January 2014. Water research body the South African Water Research Commission (WRC) will host the first workshop of the $2.5-million Sanitation Research Fund for Africa (SRFA), from January 30 to 31, in Johannesburg, in an effort to stimulate competency and capacity in the area of sanitation on the continent and support the development and upscaling of sanitation solutions. In an effort to respond to the lack of dedicated sources of funding and support for sanitation research and innovation in Africa, the WRC and charity the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation last year launched the SRFA, which would be led and executed by the WRC.

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L'infiltration des eaux usées épurées, Guide Pratique (in French)

Infiltration of treated wastewater, practical guide

Grela, R., Xanthoulis, D., Marcoen, J. M., Lemineur, M., Wauthelet, M.

2004

Projet financé par la Région Wallonne, Direction Générale des Ressources Naturelles et de l’Environnement, Belgium

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Guide technique pour les systèmes d’assainissement autonome, Rapport provisoire – version 07 (in French)

Technical guide for off-site sanitation systems, draft report

Grela, M. R.

2004

Royaume du Maroc Office National de l'Eau Potable (ONEP) et FAO

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Workshops on Construction of UDDTs in Dayet Ifrah

Deegener, S.

2014

Report for Programme AGIRE of GIZ, Morocco

This report presents the construction of double vault Urine Diverting Dehydration Toilets (UDDTs) in Morocco. After an introduction on the project and the morrocean context general information on UDDTs is provided in order to give finally detailed step-by-step instruction on the construction of UDDTs. Planning, design, execution and maintenance of the toilets will be described in detail by also considering excreta reuse. The approach to consider excreta and water flows as resources instead of waste is also reflected by including a chapter on greywater treatment from showers, sinks and beigewater from anal cleaning. The three missions to Morocco have been conducted in: 1st mission: December 2009 2nd mission: June 2010 3rd mission: July-Aug 2010 During the 3 missions four different models of UDDTs have been constructed: A: simple model: UDDT, urinal, sink, material: concrete bricks B: UDDT with shower, material: concrete bricks C: UDDT with shower : natural stones D: UDDT with shower: concrete bricks, constructed adjacent to existing house Local masons and dwellers of the project-village Dayet Ifrah were trained. They are now able to design and build UDDTs. During the 2nd mission a major workshop for different stakeholders like NGOs, Office National de l’Eau (ONEP) and other administrations and organisations including gizstaff has been held. The participants of the seminars have been given practical knowledge as well as theoretical background on the construction of UDDTs.

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