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Etudes de cas

  

La SuSanA publie des etudes de cas de projets d´assainissement durable pour démontrer la grande variété de systèmes possible pour les sytèmes d´assainissement durable. La collection d´études de cas comprend des experiences de projets des pays en développement et industrialisés, les systèmes de haute et basse technologie, des localités urbaines et rurales, des applications pilotes et à grande échelle et de contexts culturels different. Ces etudes de cas sont utiles pour les décideurs, planificateurs, ingénieurs et le public intéressé.

Pour la collecte des etudes de cas, nous comptons sur votre soutien et voulons gentiment vous inviter à contribuer à cette collection en faisant usage du modèle d´étude de cas ci-dessous.

Nous collectons les descriptions des histories à success ou réussites ainsi que "les projets qui ont échoués" afin que nous puissions apprendre de nos propres erreures et de celles des autres.


Ecosan demonstration pilot in two rural schools, Apulo Municipality, Cundinamarca, Colombia

Case study of sustainable sanitation projects

Matiz Salazar, M. I., Jaramillo Gómez, J. F., Gutiérrez Gutiérrez, C. A., Rodríguez López, N. C., Andersson, K.

2013

Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA)

This case study presents the implementation of a pilot project of ecological sanitation in two schools located in the rural area of Apulo municipality, allowing the generation of knowledge about its use, maintenance and benefits, while serving as demonstration model for the two communities. At the same time, the technology is validated and evaluated in a scholar context in Colombia. Regarding the long-term impacts; the main expected outcome of the project is the generation of acceptance and ownership of a new sanitation technology for rural communities. This project highlights the role of schools as demonstration center for the community in rural areas. As a result of this project, together with the interest of the community and various organizations, these sanitation systems are currently being replicated in rural households in the area. Spanish version available here: http://www.susana.org/lang-en/case-studies?view=ccbktypeitem&type=2&id=1863

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Piloto demostrativo de ecosan en dos escuelas rurales Municipio de Apulo, Cundinamarca, Colombia (in Spanish)

Ecosan demonstration pilot in two rural schools Apulo Municipality, Cundinamarca, Colombia. Case study of sustainable sanitation projects

Matiz Salazar, M. I., Jaramillo Gómez, J. F., Gutiérrez Gutiérrez, C. A., Rodríguez López, N. C., Andersson, K.

2013

Sustainable Sanitaiton Alliance (SuSanA)

In Spanish: Este caso de estudio presenta la implementación de un proyecto piloto de sanitario ecológico seco en dos escuelas rurales del municipio de Apulo, que permita a cada institución escolar conocer su uso, mantenimiento y beneficios, que sirva como modelo demostrativo para la comunidad y a la vez comprobar y evaluar la tecnología en un contexto escolar de Colombia. En cuanto a los efectos a largo plazo, el principal resultado esperado del proyecto fue la generación de aceptación y la propiedad de una nueva tecnología de saneamiento para las comunidades rurales. Este proyecto destaca el papel de la escuela como centro demostrativo para la comunidad en las zonas rurales. Como resultado de este proyecto, junto con los intereses de la comunidad y varias organizaciones, este sistema de saneamiento está siendo actualmente replicado en hogares rurales de la zona. +++++++++ English version available here: http://www.susana.org/lang-en/case-studies?view=ccbktypeitem&type=2&id=1830

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Urine diversion dehydration toilets at Valley View University in Oyibi, Greater Accra region, Ghana

Case study of sustainable sanitation projects

Okan-Adjetey, P.

2013

Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA)

The overall goal of the project was to help solve incumbent water-related infrastructural and environmental problems on the Valley View university campus, through the implementation of various ecological technologies in making VVU the first ecological university in Africa. Advances for solving the water-problem in the university stem as far back as 1992, as the SDA church (proprietors of the University) welfare office had threatened to shut down the university due to lack of water (Okan-Adjetey, 2012: 4.26, 28). The University was not connected to Ghana’s public water supply system and had to supply water by a water tanker. To lower the associated cost, measures including saving and recycling were evaluated. One of such measures took place in the year 2000, following the preparation of a master plan; in a quest to upgrade infrastructure and at the same time solve some of the universities water-related problems. These efforts amongst others evolved into the Research and Development (R&D) Project at VVU (Okan-Adjetey, 2012: 4.26, 28). The R&D project, dubbed “Ecological development at Valley View University in Accra, Ghana”, was initiated by the Ecological Engineering Society (IOV) and Bauhaus University Weimar and was expanded by the integration of UHOH (University of Hohenheim), Berger Biotechnik GmbH, Palutec GmbH and CIM (Centre for international Migration and Development) This project/aspect understudy (UDDT) constitutes a part of the holistic ecological technologies employed to help curb the infrastructural needs of the university. Except the BBT, the installations outside buildings were financed 50% Palutec GmbH and 50% BMBF. All inside installations were financed 50% Berger Biotechnik GmbH and 50% BMBF. An early proposal to commence with UDDTs was rejected as authorities of the university at the time wanted to have so called “future toilets” (Okan-Adjetey, 2012: 5.56). The initiative to develop a specially adapted UDDT, the so called Berger Biotechnik Toilet began in 2008, as a revised alternative, as frequent lack of water and electricity made water closets – at least sporadically – unviable. Last updated: 28 Oct. 2013

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Compilation of 25 case studies on sustainable sanitation projects from Africa

von Münch, E., Ingle, R. (eds.)

2012

Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) and Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, Germany

The Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) publishes case studies of sustainable sanitation projects from around the world to demonstrate the wide range of available technologies for sustainable sanitation systems. This case study book only comprises those project examples which are from African countries. The currently existing 25 case studies in Africa are compiled together in this book, with descriptions of well-running projects as well as of less successful projects so that we can learn from past mistakes. Table of contents (sorted by country): Algeria: Greywater treatment in an oasis town Béni Abbès, Béchar Botswana: Rural urine diversion dehydration toilets (after 6 years), Hanahai and Paje villages Burkina Faso: Urban urine diversion dehydration toilets and reuse, Ouagadougou Chad: Household pit latrines with urine diversion, Farchana refugee camp Egypt: Community-managed wastewater treatment system El-Moufty El-Kobra, Kafr El-Sheikh Ethiopia: - Urine-diverting dry toilets at Adama University Adama, Ethiopia (draft) - Fossa alterna for household sanitation, Arba Minch - Greywater tower for peri-urban areas, Arba Minch Ghana: Co-composting of faecal sludge and organic solid waste, Kumasi Kenya: - UDDTs implemented via CBOs and Water Services Trust Fund, Nyanza, Western and other provinces - Public toilet with biogas digester and water kiosk, Naivasha - Urine diversion dehydration toilets for schools, Nyanza, Western and other provinces in Kenya - UDDTs and greywater treatment at secondary school, Nakuru - UDDTs at church and nursery school, Nakuru Mali: Peri-urban urine diversion dehydration toilets (abandoned), Koulikoro Mozambique: Household UDDTs in flood-response resettlement project, Guara-Guara, Sofala province Namibia: Otji-Toilets for peri-urban informal households, Omaruru Rwanda: Urine diversion dehydration toilets in rural schools, Huye and Ngororero Districts

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Ecological Sanitation in peri-urban area of El Alto city, Bolivia - EcoSan a gran escala en una zona periurbana El Alto, Bolivia (English and Spanish)

Suntura, C., Sandoval, B.

2012

Case study of sustainable sanitation projects, SuSanA, Fundación Sumaj Huasi, Stockholm Environment Institute

This case study describes the project of UDDTs construction in El Alto, Bolivia. The project developed by the NGO Fundación Sumaj Huasi (La Paz) and had financial support from the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida), technical support from Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) and political support from Ministry of Environment and Water of Bolivia, Vice Ministry of Potable Water and Basic Sanitation, Federation of Neighbourhood Association of El Alto city (Fejuve), and local sub municipalities The project constructed 897 UDDT units and benefited around 4,485 persons. It was implemented the District 7, a peri-urban area with an estimated population of roughly 27,000, composed mainly of Aymara indigenous people. The technology applied is a UDDT toilet with container, treatment of grey water at the household level, and collective management of the urine and faeces. Further tests with the sub-products guarantee total safe reuse of the nutrients and water. The EcoSan approach was chosen due to its basic principle of zero or minimal use of water, an important adaptation measure in the face of rising temperatures and other climate change impact, while closing loops of water and nutrients. EcoSan also has been shown to be effective and lower in cost than centralised sanitation technologies. Further elements components of the project include collection, treatment and collective management of the products. --- Este caso de estudio describe el proyecto de saneamiento ecológico en El Alto, Bolivia. El proyecto fue desarrollado por la ONG Fundación Sumaj Huasi (La Paz) y contó con el apoyo financiero de la Agencia Sueca de Desarrollo Internacional (Sida), el apoyo técnico del Instituto Ambiental de Estocolmo (SEI) y el apoyo político del Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Agua de Bolivia Vice Ministerio de Agua Potable y Saneamiento Básico, La Federación de Juntas Vecinales de la ciudad de El Alto (Fejuve-El Alto), y sub- secciones de municipios. El proyecto construyó 897 unidades sanitarias y benefició alrededor 4.485 personas. Se implementó el proyecto en Distrito 7, una zona peri-urbana con una población estimada de 27.000, compuesta principalmente por los indígenas aimaras. La tecnología aplicada es un inodoro UDDT (sanitarios secos con desviación de orina) con un contenedor, manejo de aguas grises en los hogares, y la gestión colectiva de orina y heces. El tratamiento y seguimiento de calidad de los sub-productos garantizan la reutilización segura de los nutrientes. El enfoque ecosan fue elegido debido a su principio básico de cero o mínimo uso de agua, una medida de adaptación importante de cara a las crecientes temperaturas y otros efectos del cambio climático, y el cierre de ciclo de agua y nutrientes. La tecnología decentralizada de EcoSan también ha demostrado ser eficaz y con un costo menor comparado con tecnologías convencionales de saneamiento centralizado.

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Greywater treatment in an oasis town, Béni Abbès, Béchar, Algeria

Case study of sustainable sanitation projects. Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA).

Bracken, P.

2012

Water resources are limited in the oasis town of Béni Abbès. Efficient resource planning is complicated due the deficit of reliable data on demand, supply, and use of water. To improve the data collection, GIZ introduced an IWRM project at the oasis in order to get a sufficiently account for all demands on the available water resources. The main objective of the sanitation activities of this IWRM project is to support the elaboration of an overall strategy for the future management of all wastewater, ensuring the collection and treatment of the generated wastewater within the oasis and to maximise its reuse potential. This SuSanA case study presents only the greywater part of the wastewater concept. The greywater treatment and reuse systems used in the project were designed to collect, treat and reuse greywater coming from kitchen sinks and wash hand basins. This small pilot project was part of a larger project implemented by GIZ on behalf of BMZ.

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Large-scale peri-urban and rural sanitation with UDDTs, South Western region, Uganda

Case study of sustainable sanitation projects

Kwikiriza, L., Asiimwe, A. Nuwamanya, H., Schattauer, H.

2012

Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA)

The South Western Towns Water and Sanitation (SWTWS) project was created in 1995 to provide water supply and improve sanitation in 19 small towns and rural centres in South West Uganda. Implementation of the program started in 1996 with a grant from the Austrian Government. The main focus was on providing water and sanitation systems with low operation and maintenance costs to ensure sustainability given the low income levels of the beneficiaries. Basic sanitation (at least a pit latrine with a sanitation platform, sanplat) for each house hold was the mandatory requirement before water was supplied to a town. Pit latrines which were commonly used were not suitable for all areas. In some areas they polluted the underground source of drinking water while in water logged areas the pits collapsed. It was then that ecological sanitation (ecosan) technology was identified as a possible solution for such areas. However, an attempt to introduce ecosan was met with stiff resistance, by the communities as it was unheard of to reuse human excreta. The first units that were constructed were made of partially underground composting toilets, where urine and faeces mixed, but these were later abandoned in favour of the dehydrating above the ground types (UDDTs). Maintaining compost toilets was difficult for the community. Since they looked more like the traditional pit latrines people either failed or neglected to add dry material (ash, soil or compost) to the vaults after defecation. At other times ground water would found its way into the chambers and turned them septic. From the experiences in the south western region, workshops and discussions were held and it was agreed that Ecological sanitation concepts would be beneficial for the entire country especially the problematic areas. The technology being promoted by the project is a double vault urine diverting dehydrating toilet (UDDT). UDDTs are preferred over the traditional pit latrines that have been common in the area because: they do not contaminate ground water sources, faeces can be recycled for use in gardens and they do not smell or attract flies. Faecal phobic attitudes in communities are fading as people are now readily eating food, which they know has been grown using treated human wastes. Number of toilets built: 927 (6 persons per household) Number of people with access to toilets: 5562 Total investment for sanitation part: EUR 420,000 Number of people covered with water supply: 530,093 (this is the total population in the project towns (regional growth centres and small towns)) Start of construction: 1996 End of construction: Toilet construction is an ongoing process (15 days to construct one toilet) Start of operation: Directly after construction of each toilet Project end: 2013 (funds for four more years beyond 2013 might be forthcoming) This project has so far gone through three phases: South Western Towns Water and Sanitation Project (SWTWSP): SWTWSP I 1996 - 2002 SWTWSP II 2002 - 2006 SWTWSP III 2006 - 2013

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Low cost greywater treatment for households, Lilongwe, Central Region, Malawi

Draft - Case study of sustainable sanitation projects

Ilberg, A.

2012

Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA)

This case study describes a first trial of a small-scale grey-water treatment box (reed bed) for urban and peri urban households in Lilongwe, the capital of Malawi. The project built a model of greywater treatment system installed in the house of a regular Malawian low-income family with four small children. It was an urban upgrading and/or low cost housing, individually- based sanitation, implemented in a pilot scale. Two treatment plants for 2 families were constructed in the Area 25, a Habitat for Humanity-neighbourhood. The project was planned by GIZ Malawi & Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development, executed by GIZ Malawi & Green Water, Mombasa, Kenya with the support from Habitat for Humanity, Malawi The project tested and demonstrated a sustainable low cost water treatment option for households to prevent standing greywater and clogging of soils. It also avoid open disposal of untreated wastewater into public space or to neighbour’s plots. The applied technology involves a simple manual collection of greywater. The resources to build this treatment system are: a defined box or impermeable area, sand, gravel, some water-loving plants, pipes, a plastic container and a sieve. A total of 80 EUR is required to construct a single unit of the greywater treatment system. No replacement is needed, except for the sieve every few years. The treatment box can be directly connected to a small scale irrigation system for domestic gardens. The project is purposely limited to finding a cheap and effective domestic greywater treatment option applicable to both, upgrading of existing housing, and to newly built low cost housing. The system is appropriate in areas without a functioning sewer system and where septic tanks are not an option, either due to economic or environmental reasons. Besides, it helps protect the ground water because it promotes the separation of the greywater from pit latrines.

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Promotion of ecological sanitation, Sabaithuwa, Parsa District, Nepal (draft)

Heijnen, M., Heijnen, H., Zandee, M.

2012

Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA)

The case study describes a 2 phased pilot project initiative in the village of Sabaithuwa in the Parsa District in Nepal. The pilot project promoted ecological sanitation with the main objective to improve the local sanitation situation in Sabaithuwa village. The concept of urine and faeces reuse in agriculture was introduced to the community. It was planned to assess the acceptance and potential benefits in this particular community of reuse, but there was little documentation on this aspect. The project was planned by the Department of Water Supply and Sewerage (DWSS), Kathmandu, Nepal and executed by the Community Development Forum (CODEF) in collaboration with local Jyoti Youth Club with the support from WHO (financial) and DWSS (technical). The total budget for this project was 25,900 Euro (NPR 2,410,498). The minimum criteria for selection of households for this project were: possession of agricultural land; acceptance to handle decomposed manure; and willingness to apply human manure on agricultural fields. As a consequence, the first Ecosan adopters, who received toilets for their private use, were comparatively rich people in the community, as they already owned land. Since those first toilets were 100% subsidised, the applicability of the model with lower subsidies and for poorer households will have to be proven. The subsidy and the possibility to use urine as fertiliser were the main motivation to build Ecosan toilets. A pour-flush urine-diversion toilet was designed particularly for Terai, in which urine is collected separately and the human faeces are simply disposed alternatively in twin pits lined with concrete rings. The technology chosen was deemed to be a low-cost option, since the adoption of dehydration technology would require elevated chambers due to the high ground water table, which in turn implied in higher construction costs. The basic design of an Indian Sulabh pour flush latrine with two external pits was used, and modified for urine diversion by the local community themselves. Although the initial vision of the pilot project included safe reuse of dried faeces, the main focus of this project has been the reuse of urine. Urine is collected, stored in 20 or 30-L jerricans, diluted with water and then used without further treatment for all types of vegetables. Construction of the substructure including two storage pits, slab, urine-diversion pan and all connections cost approximately NPR 6,000 (€ 65). For the superstructure, the use of local materials is recommended. The complete construction of the substructure and a brick and mortar superstructure cost about € 110. The owners are responsible for the maintenance or repair works. Due to the use of cement in the early pans, cleaning was found to be difficult. Almost all owners of a UD latrine are quite satisfied. A lack of handwashing stations near the UD latrines was noticed and also needs to be addressed in the near future. Though the long term project aim was to increase the sanitation coverage in the village to 100%, this has proven to be too ambitious. The process is hindered by financial restrictions as well as cultural or religious reservations or a lack of information about (ecological) sanitation issues. Even if the demand is high, many people cannot afford to purchase and to construct an appropriate latrine. From the economical point of view, the pilot project experience is not representative for the chances of a large scale adaptation of ecosan due to the high subsidies for the first latrines. There are still a number of open questions at the end of each subsection, so please treat this version as a draft. If you are able to contribute you can discuss these questions or other related to the case study on the SuSanA forum follow the link below.

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Urine diversion dry toilets and greywater system, Erdos City, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China

Case study of sustainable sanitation projects

McConville, J., Rosemarin, A.

2012

Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA)

The EETP initiated by the Dongsheng District Government and the Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) has adopted the approach of sustainable sanitation in multi-storey buildings in an urban large-scale implementation for 3,000 residents. Urine diversion dry toilets (with bins in the basement), greywater treatment facilities, solid waste composting and the reuse as a fertiliser in the agriculture have been implemented with the aim to reduce the impacts of the water scarcity in Erdos City, Inner Mongolia. The project was carried out between 2003 and 2009 as a full-scale market-based housing project along with R&D and testing. The project suffered seriously from the lack of building inspection which explained much of the problems surrounding poor ventilation performance in some of the apartment buildings. Design improvements in both the ventilation and toilet system were made during the latter part of the project robust enough to compensate for poor workmanship and lack of inspection. The quickly increasing standard of living among the citizens in this coal-mining area of China (striving for flush toilets) and the lack of interest to invest further in a dry toilet project by the municipal government led to the termination of the original EETP in 2009. Mini-flush toilets were installed with onsite treatment and water reuse, also a promising form of sustainable sanitation for this part of China. The SuSanA case study identifies the key aspects of the project and gives recommendations from a review workshop held in 2009 for future urban projects on ecological sanitation.

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Urine-diverting dry toilets at Adama University, Adama, Ethiopia

Yeboah, B. A.

2012

Case study of sustainable sanitation projects, Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA)

This case study is about a pilot scale construction of urine diverting dry toilets (UDDTs) at Adama University, Ethiopia. A major challenge for most Ethiopian universities is the insufficient water supply and the situation at AU which has a population of more than 13,000 students is no exception. Based on this, the University Capacity Building Programme (UCBP), Ethiopia with the support of GIZ International Services (formerly, GTZ International Services) in Ethiopia and OtterWasser GmbH, designed, funded and constructed a UDDT complex for some(but not all) staff and students at AU in Ethiopia. The planning of the project with the various project partners began in 2008. The project started as a pilot-scale demonstration unit in June 2009 and was completed and commissioned within a year. GIZ then handed the block over in mid 2009 to AU facility management who is responsible for operation and maintenance. At the moment, the UDDTs are only used by university staff members. On average 80 persons use the toilet rooms each day. Students are restricted to use the toilets because of limited technical and administrative capability to manage the mass use. However about 400 students use the urinal facilities. As a pilot scale project, the UDDT was not meant to be used by all students and hence they (both the male and female students) do not rely on it. Both faecal matter and urine could be used as fertilisers in agricultural production. However at the moment both faecal matter and urine are simply disposed off in an existing oxidation pond. Some of the urine collected is applied as fertiliser to a papaya plantation on the university campus close to the UDDT facility In the course of operations, blockage of urinal have occurred. This problem can be solved by regular cleaning and flushing of the pipes with by water. Sometimes out of negligence or the lack of knowledge some water is added to the faecal matter. This sometimes can result in bad smell from UDDTs because of the mixing of water with the sludge. The immediate replacement of the bin and the provision of proper instructions will help inform users and thus reduce the occurrence of this situation.

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Wastewater treatment in flood affected areas using constructed wetlands, Nowshera, Pakistan (draft)

Case study of sustainable sanitation projects

Ayesha, J.

2012

Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA)

The devastating 2010 floods in Pakistan affected large populations, depriving them of the basic human needs; and led to extremely poor sanitation and hygiene conditions. To solve these problems, Plan International, Pakistan with the financial backing of UNICEF launched a program, “Scaling up Rural Sanitation programme’’ in flood affected districts of Pakistan. This case study is about a full scale constructed wetland system for wastewater treatment and reuse in Baba Jee Kali village. Baba Jee Kali is situated in Nowshera district in a flood affected area of KPK province. The village was selected to act as demonstration and pilot project for further replication in the KPK province. The pilot project is developed for 110 houses with an estimated 35,000 US gallons of waste water produced per day. The pilot project consists of a bioremediation technology anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) cum waste water storage tank, sub-surface flow constructed wetland (SSF CW), free surface flow constructed wetlands including facultative and maturation ponds, water filter and phytoremediation units. Intended benefits of the project include: • Reclaimed irrigation water • Fish ponds for fish breeding and will also an indicator for treated water quality. • Herbal and mushroom garden- value added product income • Animal and fodder and poultry feed from phytoplants • Compost from duck weeds and other water plants. • Poultry farm for 50 birds, animal shed and biogas • Herbal garden and horticultural crop unit In comparison to other waste water treatment techniques, this technology is less expensive and appropriate for community waste water treatment. Design of constructed wetlands varies from area to area depending on the conditions thus there is no standard design that can be replicated by the other communities.

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Wastewater treatment using constructed wetlands Tirana, Albania

Case study of sustainable sanitation projects

Gjinali, E., Niklas, J., Smid, H.

2012

Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA)

This case study is about a constructed wetland system for wastewater treatment and reuse in the SOS children’s village in Sauk, a suburb in the South of Tirana, Albania, constructed in 2009. In the village 70 children live permanently with their „mothers“ and „aunts“. Together with external children visiting the school and the nursery of the village and the stuff, around 500 people are every day in the village. This number of persons produces wastewater and was transformed into 220 PE (population equivalent). The flow rate for the project design was 16.8 m3/d of domestic wastewater. The pilot plant, one of the first established in Albania, consists of a "Dortmund tank" (a settling tank with vertical flow) combined with another settling tank for pre-treatment, two vertical filter beds that are fed alternately by pump and one horizontal filter bed. Effluent is collected for reuse purposes. For sludge treatment, a planted sludge drying bed was implemented. The total area used for the plant is around 1,600 m2. As several problems with plant operation occurred in the beginning, reconstruction works were done in 2010. After a site visit and sample taking in the end of 2011, it can be stated that the plant is working very well at the moment. The constructed wetland plant was financed by the Deutsche Gesellschaft für internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH (at that time called GTZ) and the Albanian General Directorate of Water Supply and Sewerage. Construction was done by a local company. Recommendations for reconstruction were given by a German specialist.

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Community-managed wastewater treatment system in El-Moufty El-Kobra, Kafr El-Sheikh, Egypt

Case study of sustainable sanitation projects

Stuber, N., Riad, M., Husselmann, H., Fahrländer, F.

2011

Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA)

This case study is about a pilot development project of a decentralised wastewater management system with a community-based approach in the Nile Delta, village of Moufty El-Kobra, Egypt. The wastewater management system serves 2,750 persons. The project is part of a GIZ Water Supply and Wastewater Management Programme, financed by the German Federal Ministry of Economic Collaboration and Development (BMZ). With regards to long-term impacts of the project, the main impact of the project is improved community hygiene through a wastewater treatment system based on a community approach. Before the project, there was no wastewater management in the village. In comparison to the traditionally used wastewater trenches, the new system reduces health risks significantly. No wastewater is found in the streets of the village anymore. Another positive development is that households now can use washing machines due to the connection to a sewerage system. This relieves burdens especially from the women, who before had to do their washing at the closest water source (river or channel). The water consumption has increased from around 35 l/person*d to 68 l/person*d, which implies higher hygiene standards. Awareness about health and environmental issues was lacking before the start of the project. Through the awareness campaigns, knowledge about water related diseases, hygienic and environmental aspects improved. People now are trying harder to keep the environment clean. One example is that the village started with the collection of solid waste. In general, with the CDA the people now have an institution through which they can communicate their demands.

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Household UDDTs after cyclone disaster, Padma and Rohitra villages, Barishal Division, Bangladesh

Case study of sustainable sanitation projects

Delepière, A.

2011

Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA)

On 15 November 2007, the first storms of what was to become cyclone Sidr hit the southern coastline of Bangladesh. The force destroyed approximately 750,000 homes, tore up trees, damaged or destroyed roads, community centres, clinics and schools and brought down power and communication lines. In response to cyclone Sidr, the International NGO (INGO) Terre des hommes Lausanne, which had already been working in Bangladesh, decided to develop and implement a post-rehabilitation project in Barguna District (Barisal Division). The project took place between June 2008 and May 2009 with the main focus being on housing, sanitation and water management systems, and primary health care in particular mother and child health. In total, 100 families, consisting of 478 people including 233 children, received safe shelter (new houses were built), potable water and appropriate sanitation (UDDTs were the chosen technology in this project). The health services were extended to the wider community and closer links were built with the local authority and the Upazilla Health Complex. The constructed UDDTs' robustness was put to the test when on 27 May 2009 Cyclone Aila hit Southern Bangladesh. Alia was categorised as a category 1 cyclone with wind speeds ranging between 74 and 120 km/h. The UDDTs withstood both the winds and the associated flooding that followed the cyclone. Pictures taken shortly after Cyclone Aila are included in the case study.

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Large-scale peri-urban and rural sanitation with UDDTs, eThekwini Municipality (Durban), South Africa

Case study of sustainable sanitation projects

Roma, E., Holzwarth, S., Buckley, C.

2011

Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA)

This case study is about a large-scale project of eThekwini Municipality (Durban), where free basic water supply and sustainable sanitation in form of UDDTs (urine diversion dehydration toilets) have been provided in rural and peri-urban areas on household level. This rural water and sanitation project is unique in South Africa in that it integrates the delivery of household water facilities (yard tanks) and appropriate sanitation services (UDDT) as well as household education and training as a single ‘package’. Since 2003 the municipality has delivered approximately 75,000 water and sanitation packages to un-served areas. Based on a household size of 6 people on average, this equates to 450,000 people served. This is a living document which is being updated from time to time. Last update: 23 Oct. 2011

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Otji toilets for peri-urban informal households

Omaruru, Namibia

Kleemann, F., Berdau, S.

2011

Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA)

This case study is about pilot scale urine diversion dehydration toilets for periurban informal households in Omaruru, Namibia implemented by GIZ on behalf of the German Ministry BMZ. The project was designed to show the advantages of dry sanitation systems in arid regions such as Namibia. It aims also to involve the local authorities in such a way that they can implement sanitation facilities in the future based on the findings of the pilot study. To provide access to safe, affordable sanitation for all Namibians, it is essential to consider dry sanitation as a proactive measure to water shortages and as a way to save precious water resources in the wake of climate change. The Otji toilet is based on dehydration and was considered especially suitable for a region with intense solar radiation and low precipitation. The ventilation and dehydration of the collection container content (90 liter container) is driven by the sun. The urine diversion toilet bowl is designed in such a way that urine touching the wall of the bowl is collected in a small trough, drained away through a pipe and infiltrated into the ground. Alternatively, the urine could be collected in containers and stored for reuse. No problems of blockages of the collection trough or the urine pipe, which is 20 mm in diameter, have been reported. The dried faeces can be used as soil amendment or can be co-composted with other biodegradable material. Greywater from the attached handwashing facilities is collected and used for irrigating gardens. The main expected impact of the project is to provide relevant information for decision makers and to persuade them about the necessity of saving water by introducing appropriate sanitation systems.

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Post disaster UDDT project in Water Drop Village De Yang City, Sichuan Province, China (draft)

Case study of sustainable sanitation projects

Wang, S.

2011

Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA)

This project aimed to rebuild the basic sanitation facilities within the earthquake damaged rural village to improve the living conditions. In addition, a dam to supply water was constructed beside the village, to prevent the village’s water source from being polluted by human sewage. Urine diversion dehydration toilets (UDDTs) were the chosen sustainable sanitation technology. Due to one of the key products produced in the village being peaches, there was the option of reuse of urine and dried faeces from UDDTs as fertiliser and soil conditioner.

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Sistema de reutilización de orina humana, Esperanza, Argentina (in Spanish)

System appropriate for the reuse of urine, Esperanza, Argentina. Case study of sustainable sanitation projects

Bertaina, L., Buraschi, G., Hock, D.

2011

Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA)

Este estudio de caso se trata de sistema de reutilización de orina humana en Esperanza, Argentina. 300 personas se beneficiaron del proyecto. Tipo de proyecto: Implementación del concepto de saneamiento ecológico, protección al medio ambiente y educación ambiental–proyecto piloto escolar. La Escuela de Agricultura, Ganadería y Granja (EAGG), se sitúa en un área periurbana de Esperanza y cuenta con más de 300 alumnos, 50 docentes y el personal administrativo y de servicios conforman actualmente la comunidad educativa de la Escuela. El proyecto consiste en colectar la orina en los mingitorios de los sanitarios de varones y conducir el efluente a tanques de almacenamiento para su posterior como fertilizante. La escuela hoy no esta utilizando la orina como fertilizante por malas experiencias hechos en forma de una aplicación incorrecta. Sin embrago queda la idea de realizar el reuso en un futuro pronto. Debido a su alto pH y la concentración, la orina almacenada no debe aplicarse directamente a las plantas. Durante septiembre 2008 y el primer semestre del año de 2009 se tuvieron lugar reuniones con profesores, tutores y estudiantes. En los seminarios también se les dio una introducción al saneamiento ecológico y el uso de la orina como fertilizante, con el fin de ejecutar el proyecto en la escuela. El costo para la instalación de los dos tanques fue de aproximadamente de US$ 750. Los gastos con respecto a la mano de obra estan desconocidos. La gestión del proyecto se lleva a cabo gracias a la colaboración de los docentes, preceptores y el aporte de un alumno de ingeniería ambiental de la Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias Hídricas, que realiza una pasantía ad honorem. Institución de planificación y ejecutivo: Secretaria de Aguas, Santa Fe, Argentina.

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UDDTs for teachers at a primary school Arusha, Tanzania

Case study of sustainable sanitation projects

Senzia, M.

2011

Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA)

This case study is about a pilot sanitation facilities at a school compound in Arusha, Tanzania. UDDTs were constructed to serve a population of 56 people. This project was part of the larger EU-funded ROSA project. The general objective of the ROSA project is to promote resource oriented sanitation concepts in schools, and the specific objectives of this project are to: • Raise awareness of teachers on resource oriented sanitation concepts and to use this awareness as a basis for transferring the concept to students. • Use the project for training of the community around and creating a rapid multiplying effect of the concept within the municipality. The main expected impact of the project is to have a critical mass and wide spread adaptation of the concept. There was a delay between the end of construction and commissioning of the new toilets due to some government protocol in commissioning of various projects. The school management wanted to make the occasion very official and to be done during independent torch day which made the whole process very much delayed. To date, the operation and maintenance of the UDDTs in Daraja II primary school has been left to the school management after receiving minimum training on how to use the toilet and reuse the UDDT products. The headmaster has appointed one of the teachers (Ms Happiness) to be responsible for day-to-day maintenance of the toilet. She has to make sure that ashes and toilet papers are available and that general cleaning is done properly. The cleaning is done by students as part of their extracurricular (outside class) works as per school regulations. There have been some problems in operating the UDDTs due to urine pipe blockage which has been experienced once. ROSA project staff was called to unblock the system (Fig. 7). The blockage occurred because some users poured ash into the urine compartment instead of the faeces hole. ROSA staff was called to unblock it because the school was still learning and some of the staff needed to learn as well since they were not following the required procedure. With respect to the longer term impacts of the project: The project concentrated in only three wards of Arusha: Daraja II, Lemara and Sokon I. The uptake of UDDTs has not been very good because of financial constraints. The private sector is not really enabled to get loans from banks due to lack of guarantees.

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UDDTs in flood-response project, Guara-Guara, Sofala province, Mozambique

Case study of sustainable sanitation projects

Fogde, M., Macario, L., Porsani, J.

2011

Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA)

The project aimed at providing safe water supply and sanitation to the population resettled – after floods – in the less flood-prone Guara-Guara region in the Sofala Province in Mozambique. Fulfilling these objectives in an area characterised by high groundwater tables required a toilet technology that does not contaminate the groundwater, and thus does not threaten public health (unlike pit latrines). PAARSS, a local institution, initiated the activities in the Sofala province in 1999. It was conceived as part of the existing decentralised cooperation between the provincial government in Sofala and the Austrian Federal Government through the Austrian Development Cooperation. The programme aimed at improving the livelihood of rural poor through access to sustainable water points and basic sanitation infrastructure in rural areas. In this context, PAARSS conducted pilot projects that introduced ecosan technologies in Dongo and in Madjimane, Beira.

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Urban urine diversion dehydration toilets and reuse Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

Draft. Case study of sustainable sanitation projects

Fall, A., Coulibaly, C.

2011

Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA)

This case study is about a large urban pilot project carried on from June 2006 until December 2009 in in three districts of Ouagadougou, namely Boulmiougou (sectors 17 and 19), Nongremasson (sector 27), and of Bogodogo (sector 30), in Burkina Faso. In total, 922 households and 11 public UDDTs (e.g. in prisons and community center) were constructed. The case study brings information on the project implementation regarding its objectives, location and background and discusses the technologies applied (user interface, collection and treatment of urine and faeces), design (also for the superstructure), reuse, further components of the project, costs, operation and maintenance, practical experiences and lessons learnt, and sustainability assessment and long-term impacts. This was a large EU-funded project, under ACP-EU Water Facility Scheme, with a minor financial contribution by GTZ Ecosan Program, on behalf of the German Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ). The project was by executed by CREPA, a local NGO in Burkina Faso and adopted a strategy of close cooperation with communal authorities, community-based organisations in peri-urban areas and the local private sector. The physical infrastructure of the project consisted of household double vault UDDTs, four treatment sites (called eco-stations and run by separate associations). Attempts were made to use adobe and other local material in the construction of the vaults, but they failed due to the collapse of the latrines after a flooding. Also, an alternative user interface, called “box toilet”, was applied in informal settlements due to space constraints. The logistical infrastructure consisted of collection, transport and delivery of urine, dried faeces, sanitised urine and dried faeces as well as peri-urban gardens and fields were sanitised urine and faeces were used. Furthermore, the project also supported the establishment of two “supply chains” by supporting small to medium size enterprises, training gardeners for reuse.

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Urine and brownwater separation at GTZ main office building Eschborn, Germany

Case study of sustainable sanitation projects

Winker, M., Saadoun, A.

2011

Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA)

This case study is about a demonstration project in the headquarters of GTZ in Eschborn, Germany. The project consists of 50 urine-diversion flush toilets, 23 waterless urinals and 10 m³ urine storage tank. Objectives of the project: 1. To demonstrate the implementation of an ecological sanitation (ecosan) concept (here with urine-diversion flush toilets, urine storage and reuse) in an urban context. Ultimatively, if this technology was used widely in Germany, it could also prevent pharmaceutical residues contained in urine from entering into surface water and groundwater (as these substances are only partially removed in conventional wastewater treatment plants). 2. To reduce the amount of water used in the GIZ House 1 building. 3. To research important aspects of ecosan systems in Germany (social acceptance, reuse of urine in agriculture); this is done in Phase 2. The GIZ headquarters in Eschborn is frequently visited by international GIZ staff and decision makers, making this a good location for the demonstration of innovative ecological sanitation concepts. The GIZ ecosan team regularly conducts guided tours through the facilities. A demonstration room with various urine-diversion toilet models from all over the world is adjacent to the urine storage tanks. Due to the complete renovation of the buildings facade and the use of energy efficient heating systems and boilers the energy consumption of House 1 was substantially reduced. The new ground design and a green roof (about 50 % of the total surface) enhance a positive microclimate and reduce rainwater runoff. The following impacts of this project can be highlighted: 1. This project demonstrates the feasibility of urine and brownwater separation in an urban context to visitors from all over the world and thus helps to disseminate the ecosan concept. 2. By introducing an innovative sanitation system at its own main office building, GIZ shows its commitment to the ecosan approach. 3. The waterless urinals save water compared to conventional urinals. 4. This project has raised the visibility of the ecosan program within GIZ.

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Urine diversion dehydration toilets (UDDTs) for peri-urban households in Arusha, Tanzania

Case study of sustainable sanitation projects

Senzia, M. A.

2011

Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA)

The general objective of the ROSA project, which is located in Arusha, Tanzania, is to promote resource oriented sanitation concepts in high density areas. The main expected impact of the project is an increased number of people owning UDDTs and wide knowledge on resource oriented sanitation concepts. The project came into existence since Arusha is one pilot city of the EU funded project "Resource-Oriented Sanitation concepts for peri-urban areas in Africa (ROSA)" which took place in four countries in East Africa. It is the first self-standing project in this respect in Arusha which took place in February 2008. The design and construction of UDDTs was attained after the first draft of the Strategic Sanitation and Waste Plan (SSWP) for Arusha Municipality was prepared.

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Urine diversion dehydration toilets in rural schools, Nyanza, Western and other provinces, Kenya

Case study of sustainable sanitation projects

Kraft, L., Rieck, C.

2011

Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA)

The EcoSan Promotion Project (EPP) was an EU-funded and SIDA and GTZ co-funded project component embedded in the Water Sector Reform Program of GTZ water program. The project started in November 2006 and ended in May 2010. Within the project period 263 double vault Urine Diversion Dehydration Toilets (UDDTs) were constructed in 70 schools and also a certain (still unknown) number of school toilets via the WSTF. The project’s aim was to develop, test and promote the reuse orientated sanitation (ecosan) concepts for large and small-scale applications in mostly rural and peri-urban areas of Kenya. There is an interesting section on lessons learnt on technical and software issues in this case study based on follow up visits in 2010 by Kenyan consultants. One major lesson learnt is that the lack of contribution by the school and community has led to insufficient ownerships with negative impact on O&M. Moreover high construction costs, cumbersome management of urine and the low number of provided facilities per school are weak points of this project.

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