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Going to Scale with Urine Diversion in Sweden
From Individual Households to Municipal Systems in 15 Years
The Swedish development of “modern” urine diverting systems have been of interest also in an international context. This paper tries to describe this development as four sub-sequent phases with examples of UD systems in use. The paper discusses key aspects and critical factors for urine diversion to go to scale in Sweden as well as the lessons learned. In Sweden, urine diversion (UD) systems have been piloted and developed for more than 15 years. An estimate from 2006 states that there are more than 10,000 porcelain UD toilets installed in Sweden and that there are at least 10-15 larger systems for reuse of human urine in Sweden, most of these are managed by municipalities.
Johansson, M., Kvarnström, E., Richert Stintzing, A.
Global Dry Toilet Association of Finland
UDDT; Sweden; upscaling; ecosan; Kvarnstroem
3rd International Dry Toilet Conference, Tampere, Finland
Johansson, M., Kvarnström, E., Richert Stintzing, A. (2009). Going to Scale with Urine Diversion in Sweden - From Individual Households to Municipal Systems in 15 Years. Global Dry Toilet Association of Finland. 3rd International Dry Toilet Conference, Tampere, Finland.