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Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA)


This library contains publications from various organisations and authors. Please always give credit in citations to the original author, source and copyright holder (you can use the information in “bibliographic information” for each document). We thank everyone who has provided documents so far. Please send further documents for the library to info@susana.org or susana@giz.de.
Note: We only began to count the views and downloads of documents since 28 Oct. 2011.

Gestion des boues des stations d’épuration au Maroc : Quantification, caractérisation et options de traitement et de valorisation (in French)

Management of sludge from wastewater treatment plants in Morocco: Quantification, characterization and treatment options and recovery

Hamdani, I.



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Epuration et réutilisation des eaux usées à des fins agricoles (in French)

Treatment and reuse of wastewater for agricultural purposes



Ministère de l'Agriculture du Développement Rural et des Pêches Maritimes, Administration du Génie Rural & Office Régional de Mise en Valeur Agricole de Ouarzazate, Maroc

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Sharm El-Sheikh commitments

for accelerating the achievement of water and sanitation goals in Africa

African Union


Assembly of the African Union, Eleventh Ordinary Session, Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt

Sharm El-Sheikh commitments for accelerating the achievement of water and sanitation goals in Africa. The Heads of State and Government of the African Union, meeting at the 11th Ordinary Session of the Assembly in Sharm El-Sheikh, Arab Republic of Egypt, from 30 June to 1 July 2008.


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Guide pratique pour techniciens: Assainissement rural (in French)

Practical guide for technicians: rural sanitation

Naji, S.


Ecole Mohammadia d'Ingénieurs, Maroc


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Improving Sanitation Outcomes through Service Level Agreements: A Guidance Note

Report to the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation

Castalia Strategic Advisors


Castalia Limited

Castalia has prepared this Guidance Note to help city-level teams design and implement contractual solutions to improve the delivery of urban sanitation services. To ensure that the contracts provide lasting solutions that overcome the problems encountered in the past, they identify the economic characteristics that make sanitation service delivery particularly challenging. They also explain how contracts can be structured to reflect these characteristics, and how cities can manage the process of procuring and managing service providers.


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Reinvent the Toilet Challenge, Delhi, India

Program and Technical Guides



Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, USA

Featuring partners of key Government of India ministries, and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the fair showcased innovative products and approaches that aim to bring safe, affordable, and sustainable sanitation to those who need it most. These include efforts to create toilets that are not connected to water, sewer, or electricity; to improve the collection, treatment, and disposal of human waste; to address behavior change; and to raise awareness of this critical issue for governments, stakeholders, and local communities. This year’s fair in New Delhi was co-hosted by the Government of India’s Department of Biotechnology and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, with the support of India’s Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation, Ministry of Urban Development, and Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation. India is uniquely positioned to be a global leader in the development of new sanitation technologies and a range of other innovative approaches to achieve sustainable gains in sanitation in India and abroad. ++++++++++++++ The following projects are included in the Technical Guides with 2-page factsheets: 5 Aerosan 7 American Standard Brands 8 Arghyam 11 Asian Institute of Technology 13 Beijing SunnyBreeze Technology Inc. 15 Biofilcom 17 California Institute of Technology (Caltech) 19 Centre for Advocacy and Research (CFAR) 21 Centre for Environmental Planning and Technology (CEPT) University 23 Center for Study of Science, Technology and Policy (CSTEP) 25 Centre for Policy Research, New Delhi 27 Climate Foundation, Cornell University, Sanergy, Tide Technocrats, and the Prasino Group 29 Cranfield University - Nano-Membrane Toilet 31 Defence Research Laboratory, DRDO, Indian Ministry of Defence 33 Delft University of Technology 35 Department of Industrial Design, SPA Delhi 37 Duke University 39 Duke University and the University of Missouri 41 Eawag (Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology), Design by EOOS - Blue Diversion 43 Eram Scientific Solutions Pvt. Ltd. - eToilet 45 FSOI Development Firms: AGI Engineering, Beaumont Design, DCI Automation, and Synapse Product Development - Omni-Ingestor 47 Fundación In Terris and Critical Practices LLC - Earth Auger Toilet 49 Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur 51 Institute for Financial Management and Research (IFMR) and Quicksand Design Studio 53 IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre 55 Janicki Industries 57 Loowatt 59 Loughborough University 61 National University of Singapore (NUS) 63 North Carolina State University - The Excravator 65 Pollution Research Group, University of KwaZulu-Natal; eThekwini Water and Sanitation, eThekwini Municipality 67 Population Services International (PSI), Water For People, and PATH 69 RTI International 71 Sanergy 73 Santec 77 SCOPE 75 Sesame Workshop 79 Stone India Limited 81 Sulabh International Social Service Organisation (SISSO); Sulabh Sanitation & Social Reform Movement 83 UNICEF India 85 Unilever 87 University College London and ifak 89 University of Colorado Boulder - Sol-Char toilet 91 University of Toronto 93 University of the West of England (UWE), Bristol - Urine-tricity (electricity from urine) 95 WASH United and World Toilet Organization 97 World Bank Water and Sanitation Program, International Finance Corporation, and Kenyan Ministry of Health 99 3S – A Division of Saraplast Pvt. Ltd.

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A low flush latrine for public schools

Lessons from two school pilots

Water Research Commision (WRC), Gezina ZA



Pour flush and low flush sanitation systems bridge the gap between on-site dry sanitation and full waterborne sanitation sustainably. Using a small amount of tap water or grey water (1-2.5ℓ) to flush, a pour system can terminate in a simple soak away. This overcomes the problems involved with laying sewers to widely spaced rural homes or tightly spaced informal settlements, represents an large saving of water over regular waterborne sewage – a loss which is compounded if hardware begins to leak -- and provides a number of the benefits of a flush toilet. While pour flush technology is used widely in Asia, it had not been tested in South Africa, and trials with low flush systems had mixed success. The Water Research Commission has developed two new innovations in this regard: • The pour flush pedestal which uses a minimum 1L to flush • The low flush pedestal, based on the pour flush design which uses a 1.5L flush The pour flush system was tested successfully in the field at 20 private homes and at a crèche. However, in order to succeed in an institutional setting such as a school or public ablution facility, the technology would need to include a cistern so that users would not be required to fill buckets in order to flush. This prototype, called the low flush system, was developed, and tested by the WRC.


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Sanitation Matters - The sanitation research fund for Africa

A magazine for Southern Africa - Issue No.5 - March 2014



Water Information Network, Gezina, South Africa

We look at the Sanitation Research Fund for Africa (SRFA) Project, a joint fund established by the Water Research Commission and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. The purpose of the project is to provide impetus for scientific based knowledge and practical solutions to the many unintended technical and operational challenges of pit latrine technologies in peri-urban areas in sub-Saharan Africa. A total of 8 sub-Saharan countries have been selected for the fund with the first project workshop held from the 30th to 31st January 2014. Water research body the South African Water Research Commission (WRC) will host the first workshop of the $2.5-million Sanitation Research Fund for Africa (SRFA), from January 30 to 31, in Johannesburg, in an effort to stimulate competency and capacity in the area of sanitation on the continent and support the development and upscaling of sanitation solutions. In an effort to respond to the lack of dedicated sources of funding and support for sanitation research and innovation in Africa, the WRC and charity the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation last year launched the SRFA, which would be led and executed by the WRC.


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L'infiltration des eaux usées épurées, Guide Pratique (in French)

Infiltration of treated wastewater, practical guide

Grela, R., Xanthoulis, D., Marcoen, J. M., Lemineur, M., Wauthelet, M.


Projet financé par la Région Wallonne, Direction Générale des Ressources Naturelles et de l’Environnement, Belgium


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Guide technique pour les systèmes d’assainissement autonome, Rapport provisoire – version 07 (in French)

Technical guide for off-site sanitation systems, draft report

Grela, M. R.


Royaume du Maroc Office National de l'Eau Potable (ONEP) et FAO

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