This library contains publications from various organisations and authors. Please always give credit in citations to the original author, source and copyright holder (you can use the information in “bibliographic information” for each document). We thank everyone who has provided documents so far. Please send further documents for the library to email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org.
Various documents on results from research grant
University College London, UK
This library entry contains background documents for a grant that Luiza Cintra Campos is leading and which is funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Further information and a discussion is available on the SuSanA discussion forum: http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/97-enabling-environment-and-others/4741-modelling-the-next-generation-of-sanitation-systems-university-college-london-uk#2898 Short description of the project: The project develops a simulator for sanitation systems. The novelty of this project lies in the adaptation of an existing resource-flux simulation methodology used on networked systems to calculate nutrient and energy fluxes specifically for on-site sanitation systems. The simulation methodology has been already applied successfully by ifak in several networked sanitation contexts in developing countries. However, the concept is currently being extended to cater for non-networked sanitation systems. The model outputs are the main fluxes of energy and nutrients and, thus, their available amount for recovery, volume/quality of treated waste for reuse; and monetary value of the waste reuse. Demonstration of systems which have increasing commercial viability due to waste reuse/nutrients recovery can be used to explore business opportunities for sanitation. The flexibility of the simulator also allows to include in the future modules for sanitation technologies developed in the future. Once further developed, the model will have the potential to aid city-managers to evaluate alternative sanitation technologies and to select the most sustainable and cost-effective solution. Significant cost-savings and improved utilization of resource streams, thus increasing revenue, are expected by application of this simulator. Goal(s): The goal of this project is to develop an easy-to-apply simulation tool set up to enable local city managers to assess the implications of adopting alternative sanitation strategies at scale. Objectives: The main aim of Phase-I is to develop a simulation tool to model flux of residual wastes from streams in the sanitation service delivery chain, focusing on nutrient and energy fluxes. Research or implementation partners: UCL is working in collaboration with ifak which is a non-profit institute for applied research at Otto-von-Guericke University in Magdeburg/Germany that develops simulation models for water and wastewater applications. Authors: Campos, L., Jain, V., Schuetze, M. Start and end date: November 2011 - October 2013 +++++++++++ Documents available for download below: 1 - Simulating nutrient and energy fluxes in non-networked sanitation systems (Durban South Africa, Oct. 2012) 2 - Simulating nutrient and energy fluxes in non-networked sanitation systems (Presentation at FSM2 Conference in Durban, South Africa, Oct. 2012) 3 - Modelling the next generation of sanitation systems
Barriers to child development and human potential: The case for including the Neglected Enteric Protozoa (NEP) and other enteropathy-associated pathogens in the NTDs
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, volume 7, issue 4, doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0002125
The World Health Organization (WHO) has set forth ambitious efforts to control, and where possible, eliminate the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) that contribute to poverty and "impair the ability of those infected to achieve their full potential, both developmentally and socioeconomically". This neglected disease initiative's(NDI)purpose has been to close the existing poverty gap between individuals living in low/middle-income and high-income countries, and thus facilitate the achievement of the 2000 Millennium Developmental Goals. The gap is still large. Yet, some marked achievements of the NDI give hope that the WHO's NTD paradigm, are proving beneficial.
Policy research working paper
The World Bank, Sustainable Development Network, Water and Sanitation Program
Physical height is an important economic variable reflecting health and human capital. Puzzlingly, however, differences in average height across developing countries are not well explained by differences in wealth. In particular, children in India are shorter, on average, than children in Africa who are poorer, on average, a paradox called “the Asian enigma” which has received much attention from economists. This paper provides the first documentation of a quantitatively important gradient between child height and sanitation that can statistically explain a large fraction of international height differences. This association between sanitation and human capital is robustly stable, even after accounting for other heterogeneity, such as in GDP. The author applies three complementary empirical strategies to identify the association between sanitation and child height: country-level regressions across 140 countryyears in 65 developing countries; within-country analysis of differences over time within Indian districts; and econometric decomposition of the India-Africa height differences in child-level data. Open defecation, which is exceptionally widespread in India, can account for much or all of the excess stunting in India. This research working paper is intending to explain variations in height in developing countries by analysing the sanitation coverage. Especially in India, where stunting is much more problematic than in other countries. Dean Spears has already demonstrated the existence of a causal effect of sanitation on child height (Spears, 2012; Hammer and Spears, 2012). But this paper aims to demonstrate how the variations in child height among developing countries can be explained by differences in statistics of open defecation. This paper is a product of the Water and Sanitation Program, Sustainable Development Network. It is part of a larger effort by the World Bank to provide open access to its research and make a contribution to development policy discussions around the world. Policy Research Working Papers are also posted on the Web at http://econ.worldbank.org. The author may be contacted at email@example.com.
Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) play a fundamental role in improving nutritional outcomes. A successful global effort to tackle under-nutrition must include WASH
This paper is aiming to do to some advocacy to highlight the fundamental role of WASH in improving nutritional outcomes.
Various documents on results from research grant
Institute for Financial Management and Research, Chennai, India
This library entry contains background documents for a grant that Mushfiq Mobarak and Kevin Shane are leading and which is funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Further information and a discussion is available on the SuSanA discussion forum: http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/97-enabling-environment-and-others/4554-communal-sanitation-solutions-for-urban-slums-institute-for-financial-management-and-research-orissa-india Short description of the project: This is an urban infrastructure project that seeks to design and build improved sanitation facilities in the cities of Bhubaneswar and Cuttack in the state of Orissa in India. It provides a new, holistically re-imagined model for urban slum sanitation facilities in India reviewing: - Business models - Architectural designs - Communication interventions - And facility operation models. A total of 119 toilet facilities will be built and evaluated in Bhubaneswar and Cuttack in 2013-14. More than 24,000 persons are expected to directly benefit from this (200 per facility). The hardware design process, which comprises of designs for the physical infrastructure of public toilets, community toilets – Base Layer and community toilets – Enhanced Layer, will include 18-24 unique facility designs that incorporate better ventilation, lighting, landscaping, etc. to improve the overall user experience. Additionally, in order to understand the impact of different management models on usage and maintenance, community toilets are randomly assigned to a privately or community management structure. In addition, to identifying a solution that will produce the most attractive, sustainable and hygienic alternatives to open defecation for slum residents, the program will test a variety of complementary household-level interventions, such as discount coupons for community toilet facilities and varying the pricing structure (monthly passes vs. pay-per-use), etc. The study also incorporates a program of demand generation activities in a subset of communities around community and public facilities. These activities will be used to help communities notice the problems associated with open defecation and develop community cohesion to sanction it. Goal(s): The goal of the project is to provide a replicable model of improved sanitation for urban slums that get used and sustained. Hardware Challenge: - Design facilities that people want to use - Design facilities that adequately address unique sanitation needs ⇒ Are complementary services, such as bathing and defecation stalls, cost-effective and do they drive adoption? Software Challenge: - Facility level: design facility management systems that ensure sustainability o Should toilets be run by professionals or communities? o Do community managed facilities correlate with higher toilet take up than private managed facilities within a one year time period? - Behavioural Challenge: design household and community behavioural interventions and marketing to encourage use ⇒ Can we make toilet use a habit? o Multiple factors influence an individual's decision to practice open defecation. For some individuals defecation in the open is a well-established habit. The habit formation intervention component of this study aims to increase healthy sanitation practices by creating new habits, replacing the old ones. The study plans on doing this by using subtle clues and hints to form new habit routines and reinforcing the new routines with rewards. ⇒ Do time-delimited subsidies correlate with toilet take up more than non-time delimited subsidies over a one year time period? Objectives and Results: Objective 1: To develop an innovative, sustainable, scalable urban community sanitation model which will reduce the incidence of open defecation and improve health among the urban poor in the implementing partner cities of Bhubaneswar and Cuttack. To-date Results: The architectural drawings for the facilities (on a site-specific basis) have been created, the Operations and Maintenance (O&M) guidelines and training manual are drafted, and the tendering process for the first batch of toilet facilities is underway. Objective 2: Create a “toolkit” for successful urban sanitation infrastructure and management interventions based on the implementation and a rigorous evaluation of the project in two cities and disseminate the toolkit broadly through multiple channels. To-date Results: The framework for the toolkit has been developed and is currently being populated with project-specific details by workstream. Learnings and insights will continue to be added to this work-in-progress document as the project progresses. Objective 3: Engage in advocacy to encourage adoption, scale-up and replication of these innovations beyond our intervention sites and throughout cities in Orissa and India. To-date Results: Capacity-building exercises with the local municipal corporations, as well as demand generation activities with the host communities continue to take place as the project prepares for construction. Research or implementation partners: The Abdul Latif Jameel Poverty Action Lab (J-PAL), Quicksand Start and end date: January 1st, 2012 – March 31st, 2014 +++++++++++ Documents available for download below: - Project newsletters
Short Rotation Plantations: Guidelines for efficient biomass production with the safe application of wastewater and sewage sludge
Developed with funding from the European Commission BIOPROS research project
These guidelines were elaborated and published under the EU-funded BIOPROS project, where 25 partners from 11 European countries worked together for more than 3 years on approaches that can make wastewater and sewage sludge application in “Short Rotation Plantations (SRP” safer and more efficient. Previous experiences from Sweden, the UK, Estonia and Poland highlighted the potential to use willow plantations for a combination of high-yielding woody biomass production and associated wastewater purification.
Dezentrale Sanitärsysteme - Eine vergleichende Fallstudie von Pilotprojekten mit Stoffstromtrennung unter Einbezug von Hotelbauten
Decentralised sanitation systems - a comparative case study of pilot projects with separation of flow streams and with consideration of hotel buildings
Masterarbeit an der Philosophisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Universität Basel, Switzerland
Summary in German: Anhand von 16 Pilotprojekten mit dezentraler Abwasseraufbereitung, mehrheitlich in Mitteleuropa werden sechs unterschiedliche Arten von Stoffstromtrennung untersucht. Gefragt wird, welche neuartigen Sanitär-systeme für Hotels geeignet sind. Es erfolgt eine Analyse über die Charakteristika der Stoffstromsysteme. Auf einer Datenerhebung basierend, werden Vergleichswerte zu den Parametern Wasserverbrauch, Energie-verbrauch, Flächenverbrauch, Erstellungskosten, Betriebskosten und Wasserkosten berechnet und verglichen. Für die Forschungs- und angewandten Projekte liegen detaillierte Unterlagen vor. Daneben fliessen Expertenmeinungen von Schweizer Planern in die Diskussion ein. Die Hypothese, dass Hotels für eine kommerzielle Markteinführung von dezentralen Abwassersystemen geeignet sind, kann nur teilweise bestätigt werden. Ein Ausblick zeigt, wie dies erfolgen könnte.
Stimulating local innovation on sanitation for the urban poor in Sub-Saharan Africa and South East Asia
Various documents on results from research grant
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
This library entry contains background documents for a grant that Damir Brdjanovic is leading and which is funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Further information and a discussion is available on the SuSanA discussion forum: http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/97-enabling-environment-and-others/4513-large-capacity-building-project-in-sanitation-unesco-ihe-the-netherlands-and-sub-saharan-africa-and-se-asia There are 5 key themes which all research is grouped around: 1. Smart sanitation provision for slums and informal settlements 2. Emergency sanitation following natural and anthropologic disasters 3. Resource oriented decentralized sanitation 4. Low cost wastewater collection and treatment 5. Faecal sludge management A selection of PhD research topics that have already started is given below: - Concentrated Greywater Treatment By Vermifiltration for Urban Poor, by Mr Amare Adugna Tirunah - Domestic Wastewater Treatment for Floating Communities Settlement Area in Indonesia, by Ms. Dyah Wulandari Putri - Combined Solution of UABS Reactor, Polishing Ponds and Rock Filter for Wastewater Treatment and Reuse in Developing Countries, by Mr. Daniel Filipe Cristelo Dias -Rethinking Faecal Sludge Management in Emergency Setting , by Ms Fiona Zakaria -Development of Innovative on Site Faecal Sludge Technologies for High Water Table slum Areas in Kampala, by Mr. Tom Buyi +++++++++++ Documents available for download below: 1 - Stimulating local innovation on sanitation for the urban poor: Post-graduate research and education project (Information Brochure)
Various documents on results from research grant
Technical University of Delft, Netherlands
This library entry contains background documents for a grant that Paul Janssen is leading and which is funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Further information and a discussion is available on the SuSanA discussion forum: http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/4006-toilet-system-for-waste-separation-and-dewaterization-tu-delft The greatest challenges so far in this research work is integration of all systems which are closing energy & mass balances, as well as adapting technology to context (in our case, urban slums in India). Our plasma gasifier caters the waste of at least 2,000 people every day. This could possible be scaled down in the future. The plasma gasifier generates sufficient energy to sustain itself and possibly a surplus that can used for purposes that could benefit the users or community. For the processing of fecal matter, a significant amount of P-rich ash that can be used as an enhancement for fertilizers. For the processing of urine, the struvite production has high potential to recover phosphorus. Moreover, K,N,S remain in the water and can be used for fertigation purposes We are currently working on a more low-tech proposal (sand filter combined with UV) and might share our findings on the forum at a later stage. +++++++++++ Documents available for download below: - none available yet, please check back later
Various documents on results from research grant
Loughborough University, UK
This library entry contains background documents for a grant that M. Sohail is leading and which is funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Further information and a discussion is available on the SuSanA discussion forum: http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-processing-technologies-for-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/3937-reinvent-the-toiletlboro-hydrothermal-carbonization-and-odour-issues-user-perceptions-and-experiences Loughborough University is developing a toilet that transforms faeces into a highly energetic combustible material. The schools/departments contributing to the project include: Water, Engineering & Development Centre, (WEDC), Chemical Engineering, Design, Materials, Civil and Building Engineering, Chemistry, Mechanical and Manufacturing, and Systems. The new toilet uses an autothermic, hydrothermal carbonising process to produce material that is safe to handle and could be used for soil conditioner. In parallel with our engineering development we are designing the system to suppress smells and provide users with a positive and comfortable experience. The system is designed to be self-sufficient in terms of energy input, is cost efficient and will work for a single family or community. Authors: Danso-Boateng, E., Holdich, R., Wheatley, A., Martin, S., Sohail, M., Gyi, D. Start and end date: April 2011 - January 2014. +++++++++++ Documents available for download below: 1 - A toilet system based on hydrothermal carbonization(Durban South Africa, Oct. 2012) 2 - A toilet system based on hydrothermal carbonization (Presentation at FSM2 Conference in Durban, South Africa, Oct. 2012)
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