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Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA)

Case studies

We publish case studies of sustainable sanitation projects to demonstrate the wide range of possible sanitation systems. Our case study collection comprises of projects from developing and industrialised countries, using various technologies, in urban and rural locations, for school sanitation or in informal settlements. The emphasis is on practical experiences, costs, lessons learnt and long-term impacts achieved. These case studies are useful for planners, engineers, researchers and the interested public. We collect descriptions of success stories as well as of "failed projects" so that we can collectively learn and improve. We invite you to please contribute to this collection by making use of the case study template on the right (below).

 

Compilation of 24 SuSanA Case Studies

Pre-Print for the 10th SuSanA meeting

von Muench, E.

2009

Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA)

The SuSanA publishes case studies of sustainable sanitation projects to demonstrate the wide range of possible systems for sustainable sanitation systems. The case study collection comprises project examples from developing and industrialised countries, high and low tech systems, urban and rural locations, pilot and large scale applications and different cultural settings. These case studies are useful for decision makers, planners, engineers and the interested public. SuSanA collects descriptions of success stories as well as of "failed projects" so that we can learn from our own and other people's mistakes. For the collection of case studies we depend on your support and we therefore kindly invite you to contribute to this collection by making use of the case study template which is on the SuSanA website (http://www.susana.org/case-studies). There are five tables of contents for the following five categories: 1. Region 2. Technology 3. Setting (rural or urban) 4. Reuse type 5. School sanitation system ++++++++++++++ See also this compilation from 2012 which contains updated versions of some of the case studies that were included in the 2009 compilation: http://susana.org/lang-en/library?view=ccbktypeitem&type=2&id=1623

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Urine and greywater treatment with reuse at Ashram School, Sarole Pathar, Maharashtra, India (draft)

Case study of sustainable sanitation projects

Zimmermann, N., Wafler, M.

2009

Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA)

The objectives of this project were to upgrade the existing sanitation scheme at Shree Baleshwar Anudanit Primary and Secondary Ashram School in Sarole Pathar, and to treat a mixture of urine and greywater to such a degree that it is fit for reuse as irrigation water.

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Compost and biogas plants for small scale farmers, Nairobi, Kenya (draft)

Case study of sustainable sanitation projects

Gensch, R.

2008

Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA)

The project covers high agricultural potential areas in parts of Western, Nyanza, Rift Valley, Central and Eastern provinces of Kenya. The inhabitants are mainly small scale farmers. The objectives of the project were to implement cost saving and environment-friendly technologies for energy production, fertilization and irrigation; productive utilization of agricultural waste; distribution of resource-saving waste recycling technologies in rural and peri urban areas; establishment of biogas plant contracting companies and service providers; and capacity building for these companies.

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Urine and greywater treatment with reuse at Ashram School Sarole Pathar, Maharashtra, India (draft)

Case study of sustainable sanitation projects

Zimmermann, N., Wafler, M.

2009

Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA)

The main objectives of this project are: - Up-grading the existing sanitation scheme at Shree Baleshwar Anudanit Primary and Secondary Ashram School in Sarole Pathar. - To treat a mixture of urine and greywater to such a degree that it is fit for reuse as irrigation water.

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World Bank / Mumbai Municipality Slum Sanitation Program India (draft)

Case study of sustainable sanitation projects

Jagtap, A.

2010

Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA)

The overreaching objective of the Slum Sanitation Program (SSP) is to improve the inadequate sanitary conditions within Mumbai’s slum areas through the provision of community toilet blocks - The motivation of the program is to implement a demand driven community-based toilet project where slum dwellers are not only beneficiaries but also collaborators. The participatory approach of the SSP was a precondition of the World Bank funding - The program has considered a major role of community in planning, designing, construction, operation and maintenance of the toilet blocks - It is expected that the communities would meet their own demand the best by forming Community-Based Organizations (CBOs) supported and motivated from local NGOs and Officers on Special Duty (from SSP Department) - By giving the slum dwellers a sense of ownership and responsibility towards the sanitary facility, it is expected to improve the operation and maintenance of the toilet blocks

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Vacuum sewerage and greywater recycling at KfW building Frankfurt, Germany (draft)

Case study of sustainable sanitation projects

KfW, GTZ

2008

Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA)

Objective of this project was to improve KfW’s in-house environmental balance. This was done through reduction of operation and maintenance costs through water saving and recycling. The project demonstrated innovative technologies in closed-loop concepts of waste-water management.

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Humification of sewage sludge in El-Minia and Nawaq, Egypt (draft)

Case study of sustainable sanitation projects

IPP Consult, GTZ

2008

Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA)

The project „Sewage Sludge Conversion in Egypt“ was initiated and financed by GTZ (German Society for Technical Cooperation) and the private company ipp Consult from Germany as PPP project. For technical, scientific and management support ipp Consult established a Cooperation with the Egyptian Consulting Enterprise USDC (Urban Study and Design Centre) in close relation with the National Academy for Scientific Research and Technology. The main goals of the project were: - Evaluation of methods to convert sewage sludge from waste water treatment plants in different climatic regions in Egypt to a product of high quality, which can be applied in a safe and effective way in agriculture, public gardening and landscaping as well as for wood production. - Dissemination of the useful results and information about sludge conversion in the framework of a closed loop system to treatment plant operators, authorities, farmers etc. The project was divided in 4 phases: - I (3,5 months): organisational tasks and first large scale experiments - II (3,5 months): After first dissatisfying results the experiments were continued in a bigger small scale programme in Nawaq to determine the adequate plant species and operation methods. - III (6 months): large scale experiments in Nawaq and El Minia - IV (4 months): agricultural experiments, socioeconomic field study, presentations, information campaign.

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Post disaster UDDT project in Water Drop Village De Yang City, Sichuan Province, China (draft)

Case study of sustainable sanitation projects

Wang, S.

2011

Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA)

This project aimed to rebuild the basic sanitation facilities within the earthquake damaged rural village to improve the living conditions. In addition, a dam to supply water was constructed beside the village, to prevent the village’s water source from being polluted by human sewage. Urine diversion dehydration toilets (UDDTs) were the chosen sustainable sanitation technology. Due to one of the key products produced in the village being peaches, there was the option of reuse of urine and dried faeces from UDDTs as fertiliser and soil conditioner.

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Ecological Sanitation pilot project in Chordeleg Azuay province, Ecuador (draft)

Case study of sustainable sanitation projects

Solis, F.

2009

Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA)

This ecological sanitation programme was part of a broader project in the Canton Chordeleg, which included the decentralisation of health services, local government empowerment, community participation and social health, water and sanitation services supply. The general objective was to contribute to the improvement of living standard in the Chordeleg communities through the implementation of sustainable programs of sanitation, water supply and environmental health systems. Two specific objectives were pursued: - Promote habit changes in terms of sanitation, water management and environmental health to the residents of the zone - Provide life security to the population through ecological sanitation practices.

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Malaprabha Technology in Dehu village, Dist. Pune, Maharashtra, India (draft)

Case study of sustainable sanitation projects

Kulkarni, S., Kumar, R.S.A.

2010

Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA)

In the year 1960, Dehu village had no toilets when Dr. Mapuskar (who has designed Malaprabha technology) came to practice medicine and thus reside in the village. The sanitation status quo of the village and the issues surrounding this instigated Dr. Mapuskar to make the village a hygienically safer place to live in. After researching on the working principles of septic tanks, anaerobic digestion process and water jacket floating dome type biogas plant, he developed the design of Malaprabha technology. Malaprabha technology basically is a ‘toilet – linked biogas plant’ where human excreta are converted to biogas in specially designed digester chambers. Dehu village has implemented this technology with goals towards improving sanitary conditions and health status.

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Ecological Sanitation in peri-urban area of El Alto city, Bolivia - EcoSan a gran escala en una zona periurbana El Alto, Bolivia (English and Spanish)

Suntura, C., Sandoval, B.

2012

Case study of sustainable sanitation projects, SuSanA, Fundación Sumaj Huasi, Stockholm Environment Institute

This case study describes the project of UDDTs construction in El Alto, Bolivia. The project developed by the NGO Fundación Sumaj Huasi (La Paz) and had financial support from the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida), technical support from Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) and political support from Ministry of Environment and Water of Bolivia, Vice Ministry of Potable Water and Basic Sanitation, Federation of Neighbourhood Association of El Alto city (Fejuve), and local sub municipalities The project constructed 897 UDDT units and benefited around 4,485 persons. It was implemented the District 7, a peri-urban area with an estimated population of roughly 27,000, composed mainly of Aymara indigenous people. The technology applied is a UDDT toilet with container, treatment of grey water at the household level, and collective management of the urine and faeces. Further tests with the sub-products guarantee total safe reuse of the nutrients and water. The EcoSan approach was chosen due to its basic principle of zero or minimal use of water, an important adaptation measure in the face of rising temperatures and other climate change impact, while closing loops of water and nutrients. EcoSan also has been shown to be effective and lower in cost than centralised sanitation technologies. Further elements components of the project include collection, treatment and collective management of the products. --- Este caso de estudio describe el proyecto de saneamiento ecológico en El Alto, Bolivia. El proyecto fue desarrollado por la ONG Fundación Sumaj Huasi (La Paz) y contó con el apoyo financiero de la Agencia Sueca de Desarrollo Internacional (Sida), el apoyo técnico del Instituto Ambiental de Estocolmo (SEI) y el apoyo político del Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Agua de Bolivia Vice Ministerio de Agua Potable y Saneamiento Básico, La Federación de Juntas Vecinales de la ciudad de El Alto (Fejuve-El Alto), y sub- secciones de municipios. El proyecto construyó 897 unidades sanitarias y benefició alrededor 4.485 personas. Se implementó el proyecto en Distrito 7, una zona peri-urbana con una población estimada de 27.000, compuesta principalmente por los indígenas aimaras. La tecnología aplicada es un inodoro UDDT (sanitarios secos con desviación de orina) con un contenedor, manejo de aguas grises en los hogares, y la gestión colectiva de orina y heces. El tratamiento y seguimiento de calidad de los sub-productos garantizan la reutilización segura de los nutrientes. El enfoque ecosan fue elegido debido a su principio básico de cero o mínimo uso de agua, una medida de adaptación importante de cara a las crecientes temperaturas y otros efectos del cambio climático, y el cierre de ciclo de agua y nutrientes. La tecnología decentralizada de EcoSan también ha demostrado ser eficaz y con un costo menor comparado con tecnologías convencionales de saneamiento centralizado.

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Piloto demostrativo de ecosan en dos escuelas rurales Municipio de Apulo, Cundinamarca, Colombia (in Spanish)

Ecosan demonstration pilot in two rural schools Apulo Municipality, Cundinamarca, Colombia. Case study of sustainable sanitation projects

Matiz Salazar, M. I., Jaramillo Gómez, J. F., Gutiérrez Gutiérrez, C. A., Rodríguez López, N. C., Andersson, K.

2013

Sustainable Sanitaiton Alliance (SuSanA)

In Spanish: Este caso de estudio presenta la implementación de un proyecto piloto de sanitario ecológico seco en dos escuelas rurales del municipio de Apulo, que permita a cada institución escolar conocer su uso, mantenimiento y beneficios, que sirva como modelo demostrativo para la comunidad y a la vez comprobar y evaluar la tecnología en un contexto escolar de Colombia. En cuanto a los efectos a largo plazo, el principal resultado esperado del proyecto fue la generación de aceptación y la propiedad de una nueva tecnología de saneamiento para las comunidades rurales. Este proyecto destaca el papel de la escuela como centro demostrativo para la comunidad en las zonas rurales. Como resultado de este proyecto, junto con los intereses de la comunidad y varias organizaciones, este sistema de saneamiento está siendo actualmente replicado en hogares rurales de la zona. +++++++++ English version available here: http://www.susana.org/lang-en/case-studies?view=ccbktypeitem&type=2&id=1830

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Urine diversion dehydration toilets at Valley View University in Oyibi, Greater Accra region, Ghana

Case study of sustainable sanitation projects

Okan-Adjetey, P.

2013

Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA)

The overall goal of the project was to help solve incumbent water-related infrastructural and environmental problems on the Valley View university campus, through the implementation of various ecological technologies in making VVU the first ecological university in Africa. Advances for solving the water-problem in the university stem as far back as 1992, as the SDA church (proprietors of the University) welfare office had threatened to shut down the university due to lack of water (Okan-Adjetey, 2012: 4.26, 28). The University was not connected to Ghana’s public water supply system and had to supply water by a water tanker. To lower the associated cost, measures including saving and recycling were evaluated. One of such measures took place in the year 2000, following the preparation of a master plan; in a quest to upgrade infrastructure and at the same time solve some of the universities water-related problems. These efforts amongst others evolved into the Research and Development (R&D) Project at VVU (Okan-Adjetey, 2012: 4.26, 28). The R&D project, dubbed “Ecological development at Valley View University in Accra, Ghana”, was initiated by the Ecological Engineering Society (IOV) and Bauhaus University Weimar and was expanded by the integration of UHOH (University of Hohenheim), Berger Biotechnik GmbH, Palutec GmbH and CIM (Centre for international Migration and Development) This project/aspect understudy (UDDT) constitutes a part of the holistic ecological technologies employed to help curb the infrastructural needs of the university. Except the BBT, the installations outside buildings were financed 50% Palutec GmbH and 50% BMBF. All inside installations were financed 50% Berger Biotechnik GmbH and 50% BMBF. An early proposal to commence with UDDTs was rejected as authorities of the university at the time wanted to have so called “future toilets” (Okan-Adjetey, 2012: 5.56). The initiative to develop a specially adapted UDDT, the so called Berger Biotechnik Toilet began in 2008, as a revised alternative, as frequent lack of water and electricity made water closets – at least sporadically – unviable. Last updated: 28 Oct. 2013

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Ecosan demonstration pilot in two rural schools, Apulo Municipality, Cundinamarca, Colombia

Case study of sustainable sanitation projects

Matiz Salazar, M. I., Jaramillo Gómez, J. F., Gutiérrez Gutiérrez, C. A., Rodríguez López, N. C., Andersson, K.

2013

Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA)

This case study presents the implementation of a pilot project of ecological sanitation in two schools located in the rural area of Apulo municipality, allowing the generation of knowledge about its use, maintenance and benefits, while serving as demonstration model for the two communities. At the same time, the technology is validated and evaluated in a scholar context in Colombia. Regarding the long-term impacts; the main expected outcome of the project is the generation of acceptance and ownership of a new sanitation technology for rural communities. This project highlights the role of schools as demonstration center for the community in rural areas. As a result of this project, together with the interest of the community and various organizations, these sanitation systems are currently being replicated in rural households in the area. Spanish version available here: http://www.susana.org/lang-en/case-studies?view=ccbktypeitem&type=2&id=1863

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Large-scale peri-urban and rural sanitation with UDDTs, South Western region, Uganda

Case study of sustainable sanitation projects

Kwikiriza, L., Asiimwe, A. Nuwamanya, H., Schattauer, H.

2012

Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA)

The South Western Towns Water and Sanitation (SWTWS) project was created in 1995 to provide water supply and improve sanitation in 19 small towns and rural centres in South West Uganda. Implementation of the program started in 1996 with a grant from the Austrian Government. The main focus was on providing water and sanitation systems with low operation and maintenance costs to ensure sustainability given the low income levels of the beneficiaries. Basic sanitation (at least a pit latrine with a sanitation platform, sanplat) for each house hold was the mandatory requirement before water was supplied to a town. Pit latrines which were commonly used were not suitable for all areas. In some areas they polluted the underground source of drinking water while in water logged areas the pits collapsed. It was then that ecological sanitation (ecosan) technology was identified as a possible solution for such areas. However, an attempt to introduce ecosan was met with stiff resistance, by the communities as it was unheard of to reuse human excreta. The first units that were constructed were made of partially underground composting toilets, where urine and faeces mixed, but these were later abandoned in favour of the dehydrating above the ground types (UDDTs). Maintaining compost toilets was difficult for the community. Since they looked more like the traditional pit latrines people either failed or neglected to add dry material (ash, soil or compost) to the vaults after defecation. At other times ground water would found its way into the chambers and turned them septic. From the experiences in the south western region, workshops and discussions were held and it was agreed that Ecological sanitation concepts would be beneficial for the entire country especially the problematic areas. The technology being promoted by the project is a double vault urine diverting dehydrating toilet (UDDT). UDDTs are preferred over the traditional pit latrines that have been common in the area because: they do not contaminate ground water sources, faeces can be recycled for use in gardens and they do not smell or attract flies. Faecal phobic attitudes in communities are fading as people are now readily eating food, which they know has been grown using treated human wastes. Number of toilets built: 927 (6 persons per household) Number of people with access to toilets: 5562 Total investment for sanitation part: EUR 420,000 Number of people covered with water supply: 530,093 (this is the total population in the project towns (regional growth centres and small towns)) Start of construction: 1996 End of construction: Toilet construction is an ongoing process (15 days to construct one toilet) Start of operation: Directly after construction of each toilet Project end: 2013 (funds for four more years beyond 2013 might be forthcoming) This project has so far gone through three phases: South Western Towns Water and Sanitation Project (SWTWSP): SWTWSP I 1996 - 2002 SWTWSP II 2002 - 2006 SWTWSP III 2006 - 2013

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Compilation of 25 case studies on sustainable sanitation projects from Africa

von Münch, E., Ingle, R. (eds.)

2012

Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) and Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, Germany

The Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) publishes case studies of sustainable sanitation projects from around the world to demonstrate the wide range of available technologies for sustainable sanitation systems. This case study book only comprises those project examples which are from African countries. The currently existing 25 case studies in Africa are compiled together in this book, with descriptions of well-running projects as well as of less successful projects so that we can learn from past mistakes. Table of contents (sorted by country): Algeria: Greywater treatment in an oasis town Béni Abbès, Béchar Botswana: Rural urine diversion dehydration toilets (after 6 years), Hanahai and Paje villages Burkina Faso: Urban urine diversion dehydration toilets and reuse, Ouagadougou Chad: Household pit latrines with urine diversion, Farchana refugee camp Egypt: Community-managed wastewater treatment system El-Moufty El-Kobra, Kafr El-Sheikh Ethiopia: - Urine-diverting dry toilets at Adama University Adama, Ethiopia (draft) - Fossa alterna for household sanitation, Arba Minch - Greywater tower for peri-urban areas, Arba Minch Ghana: Co-composting of faecal sludge and organic solid waste, Kumasi Kenya: - UDDTs implemented via CBOs and Water Services Trust Fund, Nyanza, Western and other provinces - Public toilet with biogas digester and water kiosk, Naivasha - Urine diversion dehydration toilets for schools, Nyanza, Western and other provinces in Kenya - UDDTs and greywater treatment at secondary school, Nakuru - UDDTs at church and nursery school, Nakuru Mali: Peri-urban urine diversion dehydration toilets (abandoned), Koulikoro Mozambique: Household UDDTs in flood-response resettlement project, Guara-Guara, Sofala province Namibia: Otji-Toilets for peri-urban informal households, Omaruru Rwanda: Urine diversion dehydration toilets in rural schools, Huye and Ngororero Districts

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Reuse of human urine in aquaculture Kalyani, West Bengal, India

Case study of sustainable sanitation projects

Jana, B.

2010

Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA)

This case study is about pilot research study of the reuse of human urine from a community-based sanitation facility in carp farming in West Bengal, India. Urine is collected from about 250 inhabitants. The total investment in Euros was of 6,000 for research equipment and labour. The project was planned and executed by the International Centre for Ecological Engineering, University of Kalyani, Kalyani with the support of the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) via the former Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ), current Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ). The study used groundwater stored in 4500 L holding tanks. Fish growth in such farm ponds is dependent upon the input of macro and micro nutrients in the form of either chemical fertilisers or manure. Optimum levels of major nutrients such as phosphate, nitrogen and carbon, and water quality parameters, such as pH, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, etc play a vital role in fish production. It is thought that human urine, containing all the essential nutrients for phytoplankton production, can play an important role at the base of the grazing food chain for farmed fish. In order to collect the urine at the university, where the experiments took place, separate plastic pipes were installed at the water-flushed urinals used by the male students. Through these pipes urine was directed into 10°L plastic containers. The urine was applied diluted, as high dosages of urine caused severe fish mortality in pilot studies. Fresh urine without storage and 8 month old stored urine was applied to the culture tanks in two different dilutions: 0.01% and 0.02%1. The dilution occurred directly in the 4500°L tanks after adding the urine. The 0.01% dilution was applied every week, whereas the 0.02% dilution was applied every two weeks. Further research is required to investigate any pathogenic microbial hazards to human beings and the health impact on fish due to antibiotics, pharmaceutical drugs and other hormonal residues that may be present in human urine especially from people receiving medical treatment. A very basic cost-benefit analysis was based on per tank unit. The costs involved are fish, labour and manure/urine, and the profits are calculated on the basis of market price of harvested fish from each tank. Considering environmental economics and aesthetic view as well, it can be postulated that the use of human urine is cost effective, that it can protect the environment and can support employment opportunities.

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Promotion of ecological sanitation, Sabaithuwa, Parsa District, Nepal (draft)

Heijnen, M., Heijnen, H., Zandee, M.

2012

Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA)

The case study describes a 2 phased pilot project initiative in the village of Sabaithuwa in the Parsa District in Nepal. The pilot project promoted ecological sanitation with the main objective to improve the local sanitation situation in Sabaithuwa village. The concept of urine and faeces reuse in agriculture was introduced to the community. It was planned to assess the acceptance and potential benefits in this particular community of reuse, but there was little documentation on this aspect. The project was planned by the Department of Water Supply and Sewerage (DWSS), Kathmandu, Nepal and executed by the Community Development Forum (CODEF) in collaboration with local Jyoti Youth Club with the support from WHO (financial) and DWSS (technical). The total budget for this project was 25,900 Euro (NPR 2,410,498). The minimum criteria for selection of households for this project were: possession of agricultural land; acceptance to handle decomposed manure; and willingness to apply human manure on agricultural fields. As a consequence, the first Ecosan adopters, who received toilets for their private use, were comparatively rich people in the community, as they already owned land. Since those first toilets were 100% subsidised, the applicability of the model with lower subsidies and for poorer households will have to be proven. The subsidy and the possibility to use urine as fertiliser were the main motivation to build Ecosan toilets. A pour-flush urine-diversion toilet was designed particularly for Terai, in which urine is collected separately and the human faeces are simply disposed alternatively in twin pits lined with concrete rings. The technology chosen was deemed to be a low-cost option, since the adoption of dehydration technology would require elevated chambers due to the high ground water table, which in turn implied in higher construction costs. The basic design of an Indian Sulabh pour flush latrine with two external pits was used, and modified for urine diversion by the local community themselves. Although the initial vision of the pilot project included safe reuse of dried faeces, the main focus of this project has been the reuse of urine. Urine is collected, stored in 20 or 30-L jerricans, diluted with water and then used without further treatment for all types of vegetables. Construction of the substructure including two storage pits, slab, urine-diversion pan and all connections cost approximately NPR 6,000 (€ 65). For the superstructure, the use of local materials is recommended. The complete construction of the substructure and a brick and mortar superstructure cost about € 110. The owners are responsible for the maintenance or repair works. Due to the use of cement in the early pans, cleaning was found to be difficult. Almost all owners of a UD latrine are quite satisfied. A lack of handwashing stations near the UD latrines was noticed and also needs to be addressed in the near future. Though the long term project aim was to increase the sanitation coverage in the village to 100%, this has proven to be too ambitious. The process is hindered by financial restrictions as well as cultural or religious reservations or a lack of information about (ecological) sanitation issues. Even if the demand is high, many people cannot afford to purchase and to construct an appropriate latrine. From the economical point of view, the pilot project experience is not representative for the chances of a large scale adaptation of ecosan due to the high subsidies for the first latrines. There are still a number of open questions at the end of each subsection, so please treat this version as a draft. If you are able to contribute you can discuss these questions or other related to the case study on the SuSanA forum follow the link below.

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Pour-flush toilets with biogas plant at DSK Training Institute, Gujarat, India - Draft

Case study of sustainable sanitation projects

Wafler, M., Heeb, J., Olt, C.

2009

Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA)

This case study is about the improvement of sanitation, specifically in rural areas. Navsarjan Trust aims to implement, evaluate and disseminate socially and culturally acceptable, sustainable and hygienically safe sanitation, treatment and reuse concepts for human excreta (urine and faeces) and greywater. The project offered vocational training institute with variable number of students (up to approx. 240) and guests attending meetings, workshops; 22 pour-flush toilets and biogas digester. The project was planned by seecon gmbh (Swiss consulting firm) and Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit GmbH, GTZ (currently Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit GmbH, GIZ) Sustainable sanitation - ecosan program and executed by the Indian NGO Navsarjan Trust with the support from the Swiss Agency for Development and Co-operation (SDC) and the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) via GTZ. The objectives of this project were to find technical solutions that can help in the elimination of manual scavenging practices, which is a caste-based occupation in India and a source of discrimination; to improve the sanitation situation at this rural training institute; to provide Navsarjan Trust with first-hand experiences on sustainable sanitation concepts and further dissemination of knowledge on ecosan in the state of Gujarat. The new sanitation concept includes the following components: - Water supply: the entire water used at the campus is groundwater from lower depth(approx. 200 m). The water is pumped into a surface storage tank and then pumped to an overhead storage tank. Due to its high salinity, water used for cooking and drinking is treated in a reverse osmosis plant. The brine (approx. 3,000 litres/d) resulting from the production of approx. 1,000 litres of drinking water per day is collected on the roof of the kitchen building and used as flushing water for the pour-flush toilets. Water spent for non-portable purposes such as showering, etc. is not pre-treated but used directly. - Pour flush toilets and biogas plant: A new and conveniently located (75m from Community Training Centre and less than 75m from the Hostel ) common sanitation complex was built for the approx. 250 people staying on the campus on an average. The sanitation complex consists of 22 toilet cabins (11 for females and 11 for males) arranged in a circular shape around a biogas plant located in the centre. - Urinal Centre: The former common toilet centre has been converted into a urinal centre. Two independent enclosures provide urinals for ladies and gents (9 and 13, respectively). The urine is collected in 4 tanks and pumped to storage / hygienisation tanks when full. This is done to make the urine available by gravity while being transported to the fields with jerry cans or container carts. - Greywater from dishwashing and kitchen area: A new stall for dishwashing was built. It was planned to lead the dishwashing stall effluent via a vertical flow organic filter (filter material: rice husk) to a storage tank. - Greywater from showers: 2 new shower blocks comprising shower facilities (total number: 40), washbasins and laundry facilities have been constructed behind the hostel building and next to the Community Training Centre to serve people staying at the campus. - Sludge drying beds: The slurry (digestate) from the biogas plant is led to a drying bed, composted and then stored for a further reuse as soil conditioner. - Organic solid waste management: Kitchen waste is disposed of in a landfill and grass clippings are used to cover the sludge drying beds. These materials could however be fed to the biogas plant provided they are chopped before. But due to lack of time and staff this is presently not done. The following products are being reused: biogas, urine and greywater. Operation and maintenance is a major issue in the success of any sustainable sanitation project. Therefore trained institute staff does operation and maintenance. Two gardeners and one “ecosan person” are responsible for the maintenance of the grounds. Three years after its implementation, the sanitation system on the DSK campus is working satisfactorily even though the operation team aims at further improvements.

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Greywater tower gardens at household level Kitgum, Uganda

Case study of sustainable sanitation projects

Kinobe, J., Kulabako, R., Olweny, S.

2010

Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA)

This case study shows the use of greywater towers as a tool for household sanitation in Uganda. The project serves 40 inhabitants in Kitgum Town, Uganda. The project has been realized within the ROSA project which aims to develop adaptable, affordable and replicable sanitation solutions in Africa. The investment is EUR 63 per tower garden (including labour) for 21 greywater towers, giving a total of EUR 1323. The project was planned by the ROSA Project Uganda: Kitgum Town Council, Makerere University and Ecosan Club, Austria and executed by Kitgum Town Council with the European Union support. Three greywater tower gardens were set up at each of the selected seven households (a total of 21 towers). The study households were trained by the research team on how to set up the tower gardens as well as on the operation and maintenance aspects for effective performance. To show the effects of this irrigation/fertilisation method, a control tower garden set up in exactly the same way as the other greywater towers and planted with the same vegetables, was irrigated with groundwater instead of greywater. Another project component consisted of gathering information about the impact of greywater on the soil. For that, soil samples were collected from each sample household prior to greywater application and analysed for pH, organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content. The effect of greywater application on the soil characteristics was not significant with respect to potassium, organic matter and nitrogen content. Tower gardens were operated in such a way that collected greywater from bathing and washing clothes was applied on a daily basis. The daily amount of greywater produced per household varied between 48 and 60 litres. Some of this greywater was used for cleaning the house as well as pit latrines, hence, not all of it was used for the tower gardens. The tower gardens are used to grow vegetables, mainly tomatoes and onions. The clear advantage of a tower garden is the reuse of greywater for vegetable growth where there is limited land and a family cannot have a big garden. A walk through the area revealed fifteen additional households that set up greywater towers after realising the benefits associated with the study units. Through the introduction of tower gardens people got an understanding of the advantages of reusing greywater. In consequence, more households set up small vegetable gardens on their land and applied greywater directly to the plants, probably motivated by the fact that there was no extra investment required compared to that for a tower garden costing EUR 63.

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Fossa alterna for household sanitation Arba Minch, Ethiopia

Case study of sustainable sanitation projects

Shewa, W., Geleta, B.

2010

Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA)

This case study is about the Fossa alterna as resource-oriented household sanitation in Arba Mich, one of the fastest growing towns in Ethiopia. The project has been realised within the ROSA (Resource-Oriented Sanitation concepts for peri-urban areas in Africa) project which aims to develop adaptable, affordable and replicable sanitation solutions in Africa. In total, 30 fossa alterna were built, covering 177 inhabitants. The total investment was 2600 euros. The project was planned and executed by the Arba Minch Town Water Supply and Sewerage Enterprise (ARB) and Arba Minch University (AMU), with Jupiter construction micro and small enterprise and Daylight construction micro and small enterprise. The project had the support from the European Union (EU). Since its inception in October 2006, the ROSA project has introduced different resource oriented sanitation systems that include three types of toilets, greywater treatment units, a biogas unit and composting schemes. At the moment there are 15 urine diversion dehydration toilets (UDDTs), 30 Fossa alternas, 9 Arborloos, 9 greywater towers, 1 biogas unit and more than 5 composting schemes. In this case study Fossa alternas are described. It is a double pit compost toilet and is made up of six parts (Morgan, 2007): two pits, two ring beams to protect the two pits, a single concrete slab which sits on one of the ring beams and the toilet house which provides privacy. In this type of toilet urine is not separated from faeces. The Fossa alterna is one sanitation option which is easy and affordable for many inhabitants of Arba Minch. Such construction would provide improved sanitation in places facing problems with rocky ground and pit collapsing as is the case in central parts of town. The absence of credit facilities for households which are interested to construct the demonstrated innovative toilet options has constrained efforts for further scaling-up of the implementation. The project has recently worked to generate seed money from other sources with a 50 % grant scheme from the Dutch government and 50 % loan arrangements to facilitate credit access to households who are willing to construct the toilets. The total amount of money is about one million Euro and this money will be used as a revolving fund. In Fossa alternas the contents of the filled pit can be emptied easily and applied in the compound of the household as compost. If there is no space for applying this compost in the household’s compound it will be collected by solid waste collectors. The feedback from the users indicates that using the compost in the compound is the best option. Compared to the other types of resource oriented toilets tested in Arba Minch the Fossa alterna has been accepted to a larger extent. The main reason is the similarity of the toilet to the traditional toilet. Adaptations on design were made upon users’ request.

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Greywater tower Arba Minch, Ethiopia

Case study of sustainable sanitation projects

Shewa, W., Geleta, B.

2010

Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA)

This case study shows the use of greywater towers as a tool for household sanitation in peri-urban areas in Arba Minch, Ethiopia. The project built 9 greywater towers in private compounds that serve 47 inhabitants and coasted 180 euros. The project has been realized within the ROSA project (Resource-Oriented Sanitation concepts for peri-urban areas in Africa), which aims to develop adaptable, affordable and replicable sanitation solutions in Africa, and was executed by the Arba Minch Town Water Supply, and Sewerage Enterprise (ARB), the Arba Minch University (AMU), Jupiter construction micro and small enterprise and Daylight construction micro and small enterprise. A greywater tower was selected as one of the methods that can be adopted to treat and safely reuse greywater, in which the grey water can be used for growing vegetables successfully. The construction of the units does not require skilled labor. The aim was to raise awareness about the unit in the community of Arba Minch and promising demand has been created. The greywater tower is a circular bag which has got soil, ash and compost mixture in it and a gravel column at the center. It is used to treat and reuse greywater, water that has been used for bathing, washing clothes and utensils. Leafy plants or vegetables are planted in holes cut in the sides of the bag itself and each day the available greywater from a household is poured directly on the gravel column. The material required to construct one greywater tower included: bucket without bottom, five poles 2m in height, 1m x 2.5m shade cloth. 0.05 m3 soil, 0.2m3 compost, 0.14 m3 ash and 0.085 m3 gravel. The absence of sufficient finance for households interested to construct the demonstrated innovative option has constrained efforts to further scale-up implementation. The project team has recently acquired additional funding from other sources. The SPA–Programme (Sanitation Programme Africa) offers 50 % grant from the Dutch government and 50 % loan arrangements to facilitate credit access to households who would like to construct sanitation facilities including greywater. Two of the greywater towers were built for demonstration purposes. These units were considered as first testing units and the construction costs were covered fully from ROSA project budget. The other seven units were built with cost sharing whereby 75% of the total construction cost was covered by the households and the remaining 25% was covered from ROSA project budget. The units can be operated and managed by the users. There is not any waste emission caused by the unit. The unit can serve for more than one year without any problem. After one year strengthening the unit and planting new leafy plant seedlings may be required. This can all be done by the household. The system is successfully adopted in Arba Minch town.

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Wastewater treatment using constructed wetlands Tirana, Albania

Case study of sustainable sanitation projects

Gjinali, E., Niklas, J., Smid, H.

2012

Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA)

This case study is about a constructed wetland system for wastewater treatment and reuse in the SOS children’s village in Sauk, a suburb in the South of Tirana, Albania, constructed in 2009. In the village 70 children live permanently with their „mothers“ and „aunts“. Together with external children visiting the school and the nursery of the village and the stuff, around 500 people are every day in the village. This number of persons produces wastewater and was transformed into 220 PE (population equivalent). The flow rate for the project design was 16.8 m3/d of domestic wastewater. The pilot plant, one of the first established in Albania, consists of a "Dortmund tank" (a settling tank with vertical flow) combined with another settling tank for pre-treatment, two vertical filter beds that are fed alternately by pump and one horizontal filter bed. Effluent is collected for reuse purposes. For sludge treatment, a planted sludge drying bed was implemented. The total area used for the plant is around 1,600 m2. As several problems with plant operation occurred in the beginning, reconstruction works were done in 2010. After a site visit and sample taking in the end of 2011, it can be stated that the plant is working very well at the moment. The constructed wetland plant was financed by the Deutsche Gesellschaft für internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH (at that time called GTZ) and the Albanian General Directorate of Water Supply and Sewerage. Construction was done by a local company. Recommendations for reconstruction were given by a German specialist.

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Sanitarios secos con separación de orina en una area rural, Tututepec, Oaxaca, México (in Spanish)

Urine diverting dry toilets in a rural area, Tututepec, Oaxaca, Mexico - Case study of sustainable sanitation projects

Ysunza Ogazon, A., Lopez Nunez, L., Martinez Murillo, M., Diez-Urdanivia Coria, S.

2010

Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA)

Este caso de estudio describe Sanitarios de separación de orina y de deshidratación en una área rural en Tututepec, Oaxaca, México con el objetivo de implementar un programa de saneamiento ecológico en la costa del Pacífico Sur mexicano, con el propósito de hacer un uso racional del agua, producir alimentos, evitar la contaminación del suelo y el agua y sus consecuencias negativas sobre la salud comunitaria. 195 sanitarios han construido para aproximadamente 1000 personas. Los sanitarios secos con separación de orina (SSSOs) tienen dos compartimentos ventilados para la deshidratación de las heces fecales. Las heces están cubiertas con una mezcla de tierra, ceniza y cal en partes iguales, la cual se aplica sobre las heces inmediatamente después que se utiliza el sanitario. La taza con separador de orina, está conectado a través de un sistema de mangueras para la recolección de la orina conectado aun bidón de plástico de 20 l; así mismo el urinario para hombres está conectado a ésta red de mangueras al bidón antes mencionado. Para después recolectarlo en un tanque de almacén a la sombra a temperatura ambiente durante 30 días para logara el proceso de sanitización y el desdoblamiento de los minerales para poder ser absorbidos como nutrientes. Las tazas y los urinarios están construíos de cerámica y producidos por una compañía privada llamada Anfora. Usando 1 litro de orina más 5 litros de agua y se riegan las plantas. El riego se aplica alrededor de la planta, no sobre la planta. Se riega con orina cada 15 días y de preferencia por las tardes. Para reutilizar las excretas humanas (orina y heces) de las 195 SSSOs están implementado huertos comunitarios y huertos biointensivos a nivel familiar. Instituciónes de Planificación: Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición “Salvador Zubirán” (NNSZ) – Centro de Capacitación Integral para Promotores Comunitarios (CECIPROC) Institución ejecutora: Centro de Capacitación Integral para Promotores Comunitarios (CECIPROC) Agencias de Apoyo: Indesol, Sedesor, Fundación Herdez, Fundación Comunitaria de Oaxaca y Fundación W. K. Kellogg

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Reuso de efluentes de un sistema de humedales artificiales, Trujillo, Perú (in Spanish)

Reuse of the effluents of a man-made wetland system , Trujillo, Peru - Case study of sustainable sanitation projects

Miglio, R.

2010

Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA)

Este estudio de caso describe un sistema de humedales artificiales en Milagro-Trujillo, Perú. El diseño se realizó para tratar los efluentes generados por 200 alumnos que estudian en el colegio Toni Real Vinces, generando 200 m3/día de agua residual domestica. El objetivo del proyecto era contribuir con el mejoramiento de las condiciones de enseñanza en el colegio a través del tratamiento y aprovechamiento de las aguas residuales producidas, para la generación de áreas verdes en el entorno del colegio, localizado en una zona desértica costera, en el norte del Perú. Las precipitaciones son escasas, y por encontrarse en una zona periurbana con altos niveles de pobreza, carece de servicios de agua potable y saneamiento. Actualmente el colegio se aprovisiona de agua mediante camiones cisterna, y hasta antes del inicio del proyecto, los desagües eran descargados al suelo mediante pozos de infiltración. En el marco del proyecto se planteó la instalación de una planta de tratamiento mediante la tecnología de humedales artificiales subsuperficiales de flujo horizontal. Se utilizaron dos especies vegetales comunes en la zona, la totora (Scirpus californica) y el paraguitas (Cyperus alternifolius). El agua residual tratada, es almacenada en una cisterna donde se desinfecta con cloro. Paralelamente a la construcción del sistema de tratamiento, se realizó un taller para la capacitación de los niños y profesores del colegio, así como profesores de colegios vecinos e interesados del lugar, dirigido por los coordinadores de las universidades involucradas en el proyecto. Para el año de la construcción (2009), el costo de materiales fue de S/. 11,510 (once mil cinco cientos diez soles) y mano de obra para la construcción de la planta de tratamiento fue de 6,520 (seis mil cinco cientos veinte soles); en total S/. 18,030 (dieciocho mil cuatrocientos treinta soles) o al tipo de cambio $ 6,513 (seis mil cinco cientos trece dólares americanos). Algunos de los criterios utilizados para la sostenibilidad fueron: operación por gravedad, no usar energía eléctrica, facilidad de mantenimiento, cuidado de la salud e higiene. Respecto a la minimización de impactos se buscó que no se generaran olores, reducir la presencia de insectos vectores y evitar el probable contacto de los estudiantes con el agua residual. Para definir el sistema de tratamiento, se evaluaron diferentes opciones, buscando aquella con mayor sostenibilidad en el tiempo y con la generación de menores impactos. Algunos de los criterios utilizados para la sostenibilidad fueron: operación por gravedad, no usar energía eléctrica, facilidad de mantenimiento, cuidado de la salud e higiene. Respecto a la minimización de impactos se buscó que no se generaran olores, reducir la presencia de insectos vectores y evitar el probable contacto de los estudiantes con el agua residual. Instituciones Planificadoras: Universidad de Islas Baleares, Palma de Mallorca, España y Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Lima, Perú. Financiamiento: Cooperación Universitaria al Desarrollo ‐ Gobernación de Islas Baleares; Universidad de Islas Baleares; Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina

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Case study compilation - SSA

Case study compilation from SSACompilation of 25 case studies on
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