FSM2, Durban, South Africa, October 2012

The second conference on developments in Faecal Sludge Management took place in Durban, South Africa. The excellent response to the call for papers resulted in a programme featuring speakers from around the globe, confirming that there is much experience and knowledge to be shared in this critical area.

The Second International Faecal Sludge Management conference (FSM2) was structured around the following themes:

  • On-site Sanitation as a Business
  • Socio-political Aspects of On-site Sanitation
  • Understanding On-site Sanitation
  • Toilet Design for FSM Optimisation
  • Pit Emptying – What are the Options?
  • The How of Faecal Sludge Treatment
  • Waste Not Want Not - Beneficial Use of Faecal Sludges
  • Technology and Innovation
  • Health Aspects of Faecal Sludges

Conference report

The conference papers are available in the SuSanA library.

Feedback from participants can be found on the SuSanA discussion forum.

More information on the conference can be found at the event organiser Partners in Development (PID) website.

The available FSM2 conference presentations in PDF can be downloaded below.


Impressions (technical tours)

Technical tours description

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Presentations

Monday, 29 October 2012 (DAY 1)

Opening Session. Chair:
Dhesigen Naidoo

Welcome. Dhesigen Naidoo, CEO, Water Research Commission of South Africa
presentation I video

Durban - Looking beyond conventional sanitation solutions: Neil Macleod, Head, Ethekwini Water and Sanitation (City of Durban)
presentation I video

An overview of the FSM work of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Doulaye Koné, Senior Programme Officer, Global Development, BMGF
presentation I video

Reflections on business models and technology designs for pit emptying services. Steve Sugden, Water for People/London School of Tropical Health and Hygiene
presentation I video


Session A1
Chair: Kevin Wall

Challenge critical: Absence of FSM shatters the gains of improved sanitation coverage in Bangladesh WaterAid
Bangladesh
Aftab, Opel
presentation

Indonesia: Development of urban septage management models
Water & Sanitation Programme: World Bank
Indonesia
Blackett, Isabel
presentation | video

Business Model Innovations for Scaling-up FSM Businesses in Low and Middle-income Countries
EAWAG-SANDEC
Switzerland
Schoebitz, Lars
presentation

Impact of prices and tariffs on FSM in Africa
WSA Burkina Faso
Yofé, JeanMarc
presentation

Session B1
Chair: Stephen Mecca

Simulating nutrient and energy fluxes in non-networked sanitation systems
University College London
UK
Campos, Luiza
presentation | video

The sustainable sanitation design concept for sludge treatment for cities in Africa
Sustainable Sanitation Design
Norway
Gjefle, Karsten
presentation | video

Vacuum source-separation ecosan and decentralized wastewater management in China
Chinese Academy of Sciences
China
Fan, Bin
presentation unavailable

Investing in people – using human shit and urine as organic fertilizer, energy saver and for economic development in vulnerable communities of Nepal
Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Project in Western Nepal
Goudel, Chhabi Lal
presentation

Session C1
Chair: Elisabeth von Muench

An overview of FSM research in Durban
University of KwaZulu-Natal
South Africa
Buckley, Chris
presentation

How fast do pits fill up? Empirical evidence and mathematical models
University of KwaZulu-Natal
South Africa
Foxon, Kitty
presentation

Accumulation rates of thickenedbottom sludge and its characteristics from water-based onsite sanitation systems in Thailand
Asian Institute of Technology
Thailand
Koottatep, Thammarat
presentation | video

Pour flush – a new sanitation paradigm in Africa, and implications for FSM
WRC
South Africa
Bhagwan, Jay
presentation


Session A2
Chair: Linda Strande

Domestic private FS emptying services in Cambodia: between market efficiency and regulation needs for sustainable mgmt
University of Toulouse, GRET
France
Frenoux, Clément
presentation

Best practices in Faecal sludge management – lessons learned from four case studies in the Philippines
RTI International
USA
Robbins, David
presentation

The informal sector in faecal sludge management – a perspective from India
Biome Environmental Trust
India
Srikantaiah, Vishwanath
presentation

Session B2
Chair: Alyse Schrecongost

A waterless toilet with electrochemical disinfection and biomass combustion
Duke University
USA
Mazibuko, Mandisa
presentation | video     

Sanitation of faecal sludge by ammonia
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Sweden
Vinnerås, Björn
presentation

The disinfection of latrine faecal sludge with ammonia naturally present in excreta
University of California, Berkeley
USA
Ogunyoku, Temitope
presentation | video

Session C2
Chair: Yu-Ling Cheng

Superhydrophobic materials for FSM
University of Rochester
USA
Guo, Chunlei
presentation unavailable | video

Breathable membrane enclosures for faecal sludge stabilization
University of Delaware
USA
Dentel, Steven
presentation | video

The nano membrane toilet
Cranfield University
UK
Parker, Alison
presentation | video


Session A3
Chair: Stephen Sugden

The Uniloo approach to sanitation in Kumasi, Ghana
Water and Sanitation for the Urban Poor (WSUP)
UK
Narracott, Andy
presentation | video   

Financially and culturally sustainable applications of Loowatt technology in Antananarivo, Madagascar – early feedback
Loowatt
UK
Purves, Iain
presentation | video  

Reinventing the toilet – a simple, inexpensive solution- multi-use collection bag
Laam Science, Inc
USA
Schneider, Josef
presentation | video 

Session B3
Chair: Marc Deshusses  

Metabolic engineering of microbial platforms to convert anaerobic digestion wastes to biofuel
Washington University
USA
Tang, Yinjie
presentation | video   

Treatment of faeces by viscous heating
Oklahoma State University
USA
Foutch, Gary
presentation | video   

The proposal of plasma gasification for an off the grid sanitation solution
Delft University
Netherlands
Talsma, Laura
presentation | video

Session C3
Chair: Oliver Ive

The potential of treating human faeces with black soldier fly larvae
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Sweden
Lalander, Cecilia
presentation

Diversion for safe sanitation: a new approach to sanitation in informal settlements
EAWAG
Switzerland
Larsen, Tove
www.eawag.ch/rttc | video

The earth auger toilet: Innovation in waterless sanitation
Fundación In Terris
Ecuador
Fioravanti, Marcos
presentation | video


Tuesday, October 30 (DAY 2)

Plenary Session (P2)
Chair: Doulaye Kone

Managing Your Everyday Shit: Systems Approach for Faecal Sludge Management
Linda Strande, Programme Leader of Excreta and Wastewater Management, EAWAG/SANDEC
presentation

Evolution of a regional wastewater management system: matching decisions to capacity
Pam Elardo, Director, Wastewater Treatment Division, Seattle
presentation I video

Living without Sanitary Sewers in Latin America
Glenn Pearce-Oroz, Regional Team Leader, World Bank - Water and Sanitation Program, Peru
presentation

Health and exposure assessments as tools for faecal sludge management
Thor-Axel Stenström, Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control
presentation

Evaluating solutions to improve access to WASH for the urban poor
Laura Costica, Abdul Latif Jameel Poverty Action Lab (J-PAL)
presentation


Session A4
Chair: Valerie Naidoo  

Solar-powered approaches to human wastewater and sludge treatment
California Institute of Technology,
USA
Cid, Clément
presentation | video   

Solar-driven thermal toilet with biochar production
University of Colorado
USA
Summers, Scott
presentation | video 

Faecal sludge disposal in situ- a solar toilet solution for dry
countries/sunny zone
Beijing Sunnybreeze Technologies
China
Ning, Jing (Cancelled – speakers could not attend)  

Inactivation of helminth in a solar concentrator
Sanivation, Georgia Institute of Technology
USA
Woods, Emily
presentation | video 

A unit operations approach for rapid disinfection of human waste based on drying/smoldering of solid and sand filtration/uv disinfection of liquid waste
University of Toronto
Canada
Cheng, Yu-ling
presentation | video  

Session B4
Chair: Tove Larsen

Urine fertilizer for vegetable production – a case study in Nepal
University of Eastern Finland
Finland
Pradhan, Surendra
presentation  

VUNA: Nutrient harvesting from urine
EAWAG
Switzerland
Udert, Kai
www.vuna.ch
video  

Individuals’ perception & the potential of urine in agriculture in eThekwini, South Africa
University of KwaZulu-Natal
South Africa
Benoit, Natalie
presentation  

Incentivising sanitation through urine collection
NADEL
Switzerland
Tilley, Elizabeth
www.vuna.ch
video

Management of FS from a mobile communal sanitation facility – a case study of the MobiSan
Cape Peninsula University of Technology
South Africa
Muanda, Christophe
presentation 

Session C4
Chair: Bjorn Vinneras

Resource recovery from faecal sludge – an elemental approach
Columbia University
USA
Chandran, Kartik
presentation | video

Enhanced anaerobic digestion as a sanitation and energy recovery technology
San Diego State University
USA
Garoma, Temesgen
presentation | video

Effective sewage sanitation with low CO2 footprint
Duke University
USA
Deshusses, Marc
presentation | video

Self-mixing biogas generator
Frontier Environmental Technology
USA
Canter, Tim
presentation | video

Conversion of faecal sludge to liquid fuels. Why and how could it work for small-scale applications
Alianza para la Innovación en Integridad de Infraestructura y Ductos, Mexico
de Silva Muñoz, Leonardo
presentation | video


Session A5
Chair: Gary Foutch  

Vortex bioreactors for the processing of FS and waste water in decentralized waste water
Plymouth Marine Laboratory
UK
Allen, Mike
presentation unavailable | video

NEWgeneratorTM membrane biotechnology for the recovery of nutrients, energy and water from human wastes
University of South Florida
USA
Yeh, Daniel
presentation | video

Research on self-sustained e toilet for households /urban-semi urban public / community sanitation
Eram Scientific Solutions
India
Baby, Bincy
presentation | video 

Session B5
Chair: V. Baghiratan

Experiments on struvite precipitation, application and economic analysis in Arba Minch, Ethiopia
Arba Minch University
Ethiopia
Dalecha, Teshale
presentation   

Nutrient recovery from urine: operation and optimization of reactors in eThekwini
University of KwaZulu-Natal
South Africa
Grau, Maximilian
www.vuna.ch
presentation video

Model-based performance evaluation of the collection of source-separated urine
EAWAG
Switzerland
Hug, Thomas
www.vuna.ch
video    

Session C5
Chair: Kartik Chandran

Highly efficient microbe-mediated energy harvesting from wastewater through nanomaterial decorated three-dimensional multi-length scale porous matrix electrode
Texas A&M University
USA
Han, Arum
presentation | video

Decentralized organic and nitrogen removal from domestic waste in rural Ghana with a microbial fuel cell
Arizona State University
USA
Rogers, Brad
presentation  

Energy production and sanitation improvement using microbial fuel cells
University of the West of England and Universiity of Bristol
UK
Ieropoulos, Ioannis
presentation | video


Session A6
Chair: Thammaret Koottatep   

The microflush/biofil system: results to date of prototype installations in Ghana
Providence College
USA
Mecca, Stephen
presentation | video   

Floating treatment pods for lake communities
Wetlands Work! Conservation Int’l
Cambodia
Chakraborty, Irina
presentation | video

Five-toilet composting system array in peri-urban slums in Haiti - a report on progress
Salt Lake City
USA
Larsen, Andrew
presentation | video

Session B6
Chair: Elizabeth Tilley

Pit emptying and public health
Partners in Development
South Africa
Louton, Bobbie
presentation

Using senecio lyratipartitus extracts as hand disinfectants after anal ablution
University of Eastern Africa
Kenya
Maradufu, Asafu
presentation | video

Sanitation Safety Plans for Safe Management of Faecal Sludge
Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute
Switzerland
Cissé, Guéladio
presentation  

Session C6
Chair: John Harrison

Ethics and FSM in Africa
WSA
Burkina Faso
Ujah, Oliver
presentation

The CLARA project – capacitylinked water supply and sanitation improvement for Africa's periurban and rural areas
Water Research Commission
South Africa
Naidoo, Valerie
presentation

Accelerating learning in sustainable sanitation
GIZ
Germany
von Münch, Elisabeth
presentation


Wednesday, October 31 (DAY 3)

Session A7
Chair: Nick Alcock   

Thermophilic co-composting of human wastes from urine diversion toilets in Haiti
Sustainable Organic Integrated Livelihoods
Haiti
Preneta, Nick
presentation     

Co-composting of faecal matter with bio-char
Hamburg University of Technology
Germany
Bulbo, Mammo
presentation   

Fortified excreta pellets for
agriculture
International Water Management Institute
Ghana
Nikiema, Josiane
presentation | video         

Towards sustainable pit latrine management in South Africa through the LaDePa pelletising machine
eThekwini Water and Sanitation
South Africa
Harrison, John
presentation  

Session B7
Chair: Kitty Foxon

A toilet system based on hydrothermal carbonization
University of Loughborough
UK
Martin, Simon
presentation | video     

Thermal processing of solid waste to biochar in urban settings
The Climate Foundation
USA
von Herzen, Brian
presentation | video

Human excreta to energy and biochar in urban Kenya
re:char
USA
Aramburu, Jason
presentation unavailable

Reinventing the toilet at UKZN and Properties of Faecal Sludge
University of KwaZulu-Natal
South Africa
Cottingham, Ruth
presentation | video
Velkushanova, Tina
presentation | video  

Session C7
Chair: Isabel Blackett

In search of the ideal pit emptying technology
Partners in Development
South Africa
Still, David
presentation

Pit emptying in eThekwini (Durban)
eThekwini Municipality
South Africa
Wilson, Dave
presentation

Social franchising principles do work: The business approach to removal and disposal of faecal sludge - from pilot to scale
Council for Scientific and Industrial Research
South Africa
Wall, Kevin
presentation

Demonstrating the effectiveness of social franchising principles: the emptying of household VIPs
Impilo Yabantu
South Africa
Ive, Oliver
presentation


Session A8
Chair: Dave Wilson     

Beneficial use of faecal sludge through deep row entrenchment
Partners in Development
South Africa
Still, Dave
presentation     

Assessing pollution risk from buried sludge
University of KwaZulu-Natal
South Africa
Lorentz, Simon
presentation 

Dealing with the rural sanitation backlog in the Chris Hani District Municipality – a case study
Viv Mostert and Associates
South Africa
Mostert, Viv
presentation

Direct mode solar sludge drier
Water for People
Malawi
Magoya, Joseph
presentation  

Fuel Potential of Faecal Sludge - Calorific Value Results from Uganda, Ghana, and Senegal
Makerere University / SANDEC
Kampala
Nakato, Teddy
presentation  

Session B8
Chair: Tina Velkushanova 

Faecal sludge management of decentralised treatment systems in Zambia
Devolution Trust Fund
Zambia
Mulenga, Jackson and Blume, Steffen
presentation   

Pilot project on FSM in Lusaka, Zambia
Water and Sanitation Association of Zambia (WASAZA)
Zambia
Kellner, Christopher
presentation

From Waste to Resource - Research on FS Drying Beds in Dakar, Senegal (DAR - De Dechets à Resources)
University of Dakar / SANDEC
Senegal
Niang, Seydou
presentation 

Market demand for FS treatment endproducts in Kampala, Accra, and Dakar
Makerere University / SANDEC
Uganda
Semiyaga, Swaib
presentation

Choosing an appropriate sanitation system for citywide sanitation for small towns in India
University Ahmedabad
India
Chawla, Chandan
presentation 

Session C8
Chair: Peter Hawkins

Financial viability of faecal sludge collection and transport operators in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
SANDEC-EAWAG
Switzerland
Tchonda, Tetouehaki
presentation

Building blocks for effective FSM in peri-urban areas: the role of Small- Scale Independent Providers (SSIP) in Maputo
Water and Sanitation Programme, World Bank
Mozambique
Muximpua, Odete
presentation

Hygenic pit emptying with low cost auger pump
North Carolina State University
USA
de los Reyes, Francis
presentation | video

Physical characterisation of pit latrine sludge
Mott MacDonald
UK
Radford, Jamie
presentation

Working small sanitation enterprise for FSM in peri-urban Maputo: the experience of WSUP
Water and Sanitation for the Urban Poor
Mozambique
Baghiratan, Baghi
presentation


Plenary Session (P3)
Chair: Chris Buckley

Panel Discussion. So what’s new? What might FSM look like in 2050?

This topic will be introduced by the keynote speakers and then opened up to the floor

Closing Address. Jay Bhagwan, Research Manager, Water Research Commission


Thursday, November 1 (DAY 4) - Technical Tours

LaDePa (Latrine Dehydration and Pasteurisation plant) – pelletising of pit sludge (photos)

Pit emptying in eThekwini (photos)

Struvite generation from urine plant at the University of KwaZulu Natal

The Newlands/kwaMashu permaculture centre and ABR research facility (factsheet)

eThekwini’s informal settlement sanitation provision programme

Program available here


In addition to the following organisantions that contributed and supported the FSM2: Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Conrite Walls (Pty) Ltd, Department of Science and Technology, Envirosan Sanitation Solutions cc, eThekwini Metrolpolitan Municipality, International Water Association, Irish Aid - Government of Ireland, San Africa Precast (Pty) Ltd, University of KwaZulu Natal, Water and Sanitation for All in Africa (WSA) and Water Research Comission (WRC); special thanks should go to the event organiser Partners in Development (PID).

In case you have questions or comments regarding the conference, please refer to the WRC, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..

In case you have questions or comments regarding this webpage, please refer to the SuSanA Secretariat, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Share this page on    


Follow us on    

SuSanA Partners currently 315 partners

Sanitation events

SuSanA newsmail

Stay informed about the activities of SuSanA and its partners. The SuSanA news mail is sent out around four times per year and contains information about news, events, new partners, projects, discussions and publications of the SuSanA network.

SuSanA partners are welcome to send us news items for inclusion in the SuSanA news mails.

Archived news »

Latest tweets mentioning SuSanA

Tweets mentioning SuSanA »

What's new? We have a Wikipedia Drive for World Toilet Day!

Wikipedia is one of the key global channels for disseminating information about sanitation – so SuSanA is now organizing a major upgrade of the relevant pages. Are you a creative writer, journalist, editor or sanitation expert? Join this important crowd-sourcing event ahead of World Toilet Day (19 November).

More information in press release by SEI »

Jobs

 


close  

 

Resources and publications

Our library has more than 2300 publications, factsheets, presentations, drawings etc. from many different organisations. It continues to grow thanks to the contributions from our partners.

Add item to library »

The three links below take you to special groups of items in the library for more convenient access:

Projects

The project database contains nearly 400 sanitation projects of many different organizations dealing with research, implementation, advocacy, capacity development etc. Advanced filtering functions and a global map are also available. Information on how and why this database was created is here.

People working for SuSanA partners can add their own projects through their partner profile page. You might need your SuSanA login upgraded for this purpose. Please contact us if you would like to add a project.


Trainings, conference and events materials

Missed important conferences or courses? Catch up by using their materials for self study. These materials have been kindly provided by SuSanA partners.

Regional chapters

Use the map or the search tool to access the most relevant information and knowledge products for your region or country. This includes relevant resources, events, partners or projects.

Shit flow diagrams (SFDs), excreta flow diagrams

Shit flow diagrams (SFDs) help to visualize excreta management in urban settings. Access SFDs and more through the SFD Portal.

 


close  

 

Discussion forum

Share knowledge, exchange experiences, discuss challenges, make announcements, ask questions and more. Hint: Your discussion forum login is the same as your SuSanA login. More about the forum's philosophy »


Integrated content

We are hosting content from some other communities of practice and information-sharing portals. This section also provides a link to SuSanA's Sanitation Wikipedia initiative.

Suggest content to add »

SuSanA partners

Learn more about current SuSanA partners, and sign up to become a partner organization (if your organization is eligible). This way you can show your support for SuSanA's vision and fully utilise the platform's functionalities. See FAQs for more details.

Apply to become a partner »


SuSanA meetings

Individual membership

Register as an individual member of SuSanA free of charge. As a member you can interact with thousands of sanitation enthusiasts on the discussion forum.  You can also get engaged in one of our 13 working groups. Our FAQs explain the benefits further.

By getting a SuSanA login you can fully participate in the SuSanA community!

Register as a member

Login


Forgot your password?

 


close