According to Census 2011, India’s urban population is 377 million, 31% of the total population, with the expectation to increase to 600 million by 2031. The Census 2011 also showed that in 4,041 statutory towns, close to eight million households do not have access to toilets and defecate in the open (7.90 million). Weak sanitation has significant health costs and untreated sewage from cities is the single biggest source of water resource pollution in India. This indicates both the scale of the challenge ahead of the Indian cities and the huge costs incurred from not addressing them.
The president of India launched the Swachh Bharat Abhiyaan Mission (SBM) in October 2014 for ensuring hygiene, waste management and sanitation across the nation. SBM consists of two sub-missions: The Swachh Bharat Mission-Gramin (SBM-G) which is being implemented in rural areas by the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation (M/o DWS) and The Swachh Bharat Mission - Urban which is being implemented in urban areas by the Ministry of Urban Development (M/o UD).
Objectives of the Swachh Bharat Mission - Urban
- Elimination of open defecation
- Eradication of Manual Scavenging
- Modern and Scientific Municipal Waste Management
- To effect behavioral change regarding healthy sanitation practices
- Generate awareness about sanitation and its linkage with public health
- Capacity Augmentation for ULB’s
- To create an enabling environment for private sector participation in Capex (capital expenditure) and Opex (operation and maintenance)
Objectives of the Swachh Bharat Mission - Gramin
- Bring about an improvement in the general quality of life in the rural areas, by promoting cleanliness, hygiene and eliminating open defecation.
- Accelerate sanitation coverage in rural areas to achieve the vision of Swachh Bharat by 2nd October 2019.
- Motivate Communities and Panchayati Raj Institutions to adopt sustainable sanitation practices and facilities through awareness creation and health education.
- Encourage cost effective and appropriate technologies for ecologically safe and sustainable sanitation.
- Develop where required, Community managed sanitation systems focusing on scientific Solid & Liquid Waste Management systems for overall cleanliness in the rural areas.
Duration of the mission
The Mission will be in force till 2nd October 2019