Sanitation Library

Total results: 2349

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Danaei, G. et al. (2016)

Risk factors for childhood stunting in 137 developing countries: A comparative risk assessment analysis at global, regional and country level

Stunting affects one-third of children under 5 years old in developing countries, and 14% of childhood deaths are attributable to it. A large number of risk factors for stunting have been identified in epidemiological studies. However, the relative contribution of these risk factors to stunting has not been examined across countries. We estimated the number of stunting cases among children aged …

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Jacob, N. (2016)

On the way to "clean India": 2 years of Swacch Bharat Mission (Urban)
Thematic Discussion Series Synthesis Document

With the implementation of the SuSanA Indian Chapter, disucssions around Sanitation in India are held in a regular period on the SuSanA Forum.
In India, Swachh Bharat Mission has been launched 2nd October 2014 to eradicate open defecation and implement behaviour change across India´s society. The following is a synthesis of the posts published during the discussion about the challenges and …

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Jacob, N., von Falkenhausen, A., Bauer, M. (2016)

On the way to "clean India": 2 years of Swacch Bharat Mission (Gramin) (Rural)
Thematic Discussion Series Synthesis Document

With the implementation of the SuSanA Indian Chapter, this TDS was the first with focus on sanitation in India. Since it was launched 2nd October, 2014, Swacch Bharat Mission (SBM) has been one of the Indian government’s flagship programmes to eradicate open defecation and implement behaviour change across India´s society.

The first thematic online discussion of the India Sanitation …

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Dauenhauer, K., Schlenk, J., Langkau, T. (2016)

Managing WASH in Schools: Is the Education Sector Ready?
A Thematic Discussion Series hosted by GIZ and SuSanA

The direct links of WinS to SDG3 (health), SDG4 (education) and SDG6 (water and sanitation) pose the chance for increased inter-sectoral cooperation. Thereby, the education sector’s leadership and management are critical to broad-scale implementation and success of WinS. Yet, how is the education sector taking WASH on board and how can the sector manage it? How does the reality look like in …

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John Rogers, W. et. al. (2016)

Water and sanitation interlinkages across the 2030 Agenda for sustainable development

This UN-Water Analytical Brief analyses the central role of water and sanitation to describe the links and interdependencies between the targets of Sustainable Development Goal 6 on water and sanitation and those of other SDGs. It aims to stimulate United Nations Member States’ consideration of the water-related linkages within the SDGs to facilitate an integrated approach to implementation.

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Hutton, G., Varughese, M. (2016)

The costs of meeting the 2030 Sustainable Development Goal targets on drinking water, sanitation and hygiene

This study provides an assessment of the global costs of meeting the WASH-related targets of SDG 6. The targets assessed include achieving universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all (target 6.1), achieving access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all, and ending open defecation (target 6.2). The estimates include 140 countries, or 85% of the …

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UN (2016)

The Sustainable Development Goals Report 2016

The aim of this report is to present an overview of the 17 SDGs using data available in 2016 to highlight the most significant gaps and challenges. This baseline report is meant to be a starting point for the implementation of the SDGs and its monitoring.

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Reidhead, W. (2016)

Monitoring water and sanitation in the 2030 Agenda for sustainable development - an introduction

This UN-Water publication presents the Integrated Monitoring of water and sanitation related targets (GEMI), being currently development. This initiative complements the monitoring work on water supply and sanitation which is conducted by the WHO/ UNICEF Joint Monitoring Pro-gramme (JMP) and the UN-Water Global Analysis and Assessment of Sanitation and Drinking-Water (GLAAS). These programs, JMP, …

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pS-Eau (2016)

WASH services in the Sustainable Development Goals

This document brief aims to give the context of the development of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) and highlights the issues of water and sanitation in the SDGs. This should allow WASH actors to better link their actions to the implementation of the SDGs and easily find the key documents of the 2030 Agenda.

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Baron, C. et al. (2016)

Technical reports n°19 – Water in cities, sanitation and insecurity
Contrasted realities in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) and Niamey (Niger)

This study is based on surveys con-ducted in six poor districts of Oua-gadougou and five of Niamey. It gives a comparison of the situation between the two cities in terms of access to water and sanitation. Its Primary objective is to clarify ambiguous concepts of "precarious" and "poor", qualifying both households and neighbourhoods. The second objective is to appreciate the interlocking between …

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Gabert, J., (2016)

How to make urban and sanitation planning work?
Lessons learnt from West Africa, South East Asia, Madagascar, and Haiti

In preparation for the 2015 BORDA Symposium, BORDA had asked GRET to address the following questions:
- What are the main challenges to make sanitation programmes at the municipal level successful?
- What bottlenecks and mistakes in international cooperation should be avoided?
- What is needed from national and local players and the international community to ensure integrated management …

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Van de Lande, L. (2015)

Eliminating discrimination and inequalities in access to water and sanitation

This document UN-Water provides a summary on discrimination and inequality in the field of water and sanitation: it explains the concept of discrimination, details the human rights in regarding equity in the WASH sector and presents the course of action towards the elimination of discrimination and inequality.

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Baetings, E. (2016)

Sanitation market research in rural Cambodia
Rapid assessment of supply and demand in three rural districts

Key Fndings

• In general, the rural supply chains for sanitation products and services are well established in the three districts.

• Uptake of toilets is showing steady progress but slows down drastically when the last mile 1 is in sight.

• Rural households opt for high-end, rather expensive sanitation facilities.

• The preferred types of toilet facilities are …

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Sommer, M. et al. (2016)

Managing menstruation in the workplace: An overlooked issue in low- und middle-income countries

The potential menstrual hygiene management barriers faced by adolescent girls and women in workplace environments in low- and middle-income countries has been under addressed in research, programming and policy. Despite global efforts to reduce poverty among women in such contexts, there has been insufficient attention to the water and sanitation related barriers, specifically in relation to …

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Chunga, R.M. et al. (2016)

Adopt or adapt: Sanitation technology choices in urbanizing Malawi

This paper presents the results of a mixed-methods study examining adaptation strategies that property owners in low-income, rapidly urbanizing areas in Malawi adopt to address the limitations of pit latrines, the most common method of disposing human excreta. A particular challenge is lack of space for constructing new latrines aspopulation density increases: traditional practice has been to cap …

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Tiberghien, J.-E. et al. (2016)

A tale of clean cities:
Insights for planning urban sanitation from Ghana, India and the Philippines

Uncontrolled urbanisation and proliferation of slums makes development of urban sanitation a big challenge. To contribute to the efforts towards the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) target of universal access to sanitation, the research A tale of clean cities aimed to learn from three cities that are performing well in sanitation: Kumasi, Ghana; San Fernando, the Philippines; and Visakhapatnam, …

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Abramovsky, L. et al. (2016)

Improving CLTS targeting: Evidence from Nigeria

Many low-income countries face the hefty challenge of increasing sanitation coverage, in both rural and urban areas, which demand di erent solutions. In response, governments, with support from international agencies, bilateral donors and non-government organisations, are deploying a range of programmes and policies to accelerate progress towards the new global goals. Community-led total …

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Barot, N., Ramisetty, M., Kapur, D. (2016)

Formative research to develop appropriate participatory approaches towards water, sanitation and hygiene in rural areas

Most sanitation promotion approaches are only partially successful in providing short term increases in sanitation coverage and usage. Behaviour change communication messages designed as marketing interventions often fail to address deeper underlying causes of resistance behind people’s reluctance to adopt improved and safe sani-tation and hygiene. This study was undertaken with the objective …

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Eremutha, F. et al. (2016)

Evaluation of sanitary conditions in Kuje Market in Abuja, Nigeria with diverse cultural practices and provision of a Dry Ecological Toilet System

This paper presents the general sanitation practices by the traders in a major market in Kuje located in the Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja and our efforts in reorientating the market stakeholders towards the provision and use of a new dry sanitation toilet complex. The market is known for its diversity in Nigerian ethnicity, culture and the variety of goods and services. A novel toilet …

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Furlong, C. et al. (2016)

Learnings from implementing the excreta flow diagram (SFD) process in Kumasi

Excreta, Faecal or Shit Flow Diagrams (SFDs) are away to clearly represent how excreta flows along the sanitation service chain. This approach has already gaines popularity and many SFDs have already been produced. To date little attention has been paid to the methods and data used, or the credibility of the SFDs. The SFD Promotion Initiative has created a tool to enable the wieder …

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Lutters, M.C. et al. (2016)

Menstrual Hygiene Management – An overview of a neglected issue
Link collection for MHM

The link collection is organized according to four main topics that address MHM, namely:
- An introduction to MHM, Top Reads,
- Challenges and the Intersectoral Nature of MHM and MHM Materials,
- Actions and Interventions that are all-encompassing.

Please take into account that this source is not exhaustive and thus only contains files that were pre-selected and in this Initiative driven …

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WASH advocates (2014)

Water, Sanitation and Hygiene in Nutrition Efforts: A Resource Guide

This resource guide includes manuals, reports, academic studies, and organizations working on WASH and nutrition. The guide can serve as a tool for implementers and advocates in the WASH/Nutrition nexus looking to pursue and promote integrated programming.

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Mitchell, C. et al. (2016)

Making pathogen hazards visible: a new heuristic to improve sanitation investment efficacy

The public health objective of sanitation is to reduce the risk of negative health outcomes from faecal contamination. For water-based sanitation systems at the household and community scale as practised in Indonesia and perhaps elsewhere, the liquid component of the effluent comprises a significant pathogen hazard. While increasing attention is paid to managing the solid fraction, the hazard in …

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Various authors (2014)

SuSanA cartoon competition

SuSanA and the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) held a sanitation-themed cartoon competition. The spirit of the competition was to create cartoons which would get people to laugh and talk about sanitation - towards breaking the taboo around sanitation!

We received creative, funny, and profound cartoons from around the world, which highlighted humour around the …

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Campbell, OM. et al. (2015)

Getting the basics right - the role of water, sanitation and hygiene in maternal and reproductive health
A conceptual framework

To explore linkages between water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) and maternal and perinatal health via a conceptual approach and a scoping review
We developed a conceptual framework iteratively, amalgamating three literature-based lenses. We then searched literature and identified risk factors potentially linked to maternal and perinatal health. We conducted a systematic scoping …

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Sanitation events

SuSanA newsmail

Stay informed about the activities of SuSanA and its partners. The SuSanA news mail is sent out around four times per year and contains information about news, events, new partners, projects, discussions and publications of the SuSanA network.

SuSanA partners are welcome to send us news items for inclusion in the SuSanA news mails.

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What's new? We have a Wikipedia Drive for World Toilet Day!

Wikipedia is one of the key global channels for disseminating information about sanitation – so SuSanA is now organizing a major upgrade of the relevant pages. Are you a creative writer, journalist, editor or sanitation expert? Join this important crowd-sourcing event ahead of World Toilet Day (19 November).

More information in press release by SEI »





Resources and publications

Our library has more than 2300 publications, factsheets, presentations, drawings etc. from many different organisations. It continues to grow thanks to the contributions from our partners.

Add item to library »

The three links below take you to special groups of items in the library for more convenient access:


The project database contains nearly 400 sanitation projects of many different organizations dealing with research, implementation, advocacy, capacity development etc. Advanced filtering functions and a global map are also available. Information on how and why this database was created is here.

People working for SuSanA partners can add their own projects through their partner profile page. You might need your SuSanA login upgraded for this purpose. Please contact us if you would like to add a project.

Trainings, conference and events materials

Missed important conferences or courses? Catch up by using their materials for self study. These materials have been kindly provided by SuSanA partners.

Regional chapters

Use the map or the search tool to access the most relevant information and knowledge products for your region or country. This includes relevant resources, events, partners or projects.

Shit flow diagrams (SFDs), excreta flow diagrams

Shit flow diagrams (SFDs) help to visualize excreta management in urban settings. Access SFDs and more through the SFD Portal.




Discussion forum

Share knowledge, exchange experiences, discuss challenges, make announcements, ask questions and more. Hint: Your discussion forum login is the same as your SuSanA login. More about the forum's philosophy »

Integrated content

We are hosting content from some other communities of practice and information-sharing portals. This section also provides a link to SuSanA's Sanitation Wikipedia initiative.

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SuSanA partners

Learn more about current SuSanA partners, and sign up to become a partner organisation (if your organisation is eligible). This way you can show your support for SuSanA's vision and fully utilise the platform's functionalities. See FAQs for more details.

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SuSanA meetings

Individual membership

Register as an individual member of SuSanA free of charge. As a member you can interact with thousands of sanitation enthusiasts on the discussion forum.  You can also get engaged in one of our 13 working groups and our regional chapters. Our FAQs explain the benefits further.

By getting a SuSanA login you can fully participate in the SuSanA community!

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