Sanitation Library

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GIZ (2013)

Refresher course for plumbers on household connectivity
ToT manual

The mission of this programme is to educate plumbers on connections between Household and Public Sewerage Systems. This Training of Trainers manual is meant for trainers, in order to equip them with the skills to become expert trainers in this field. This manual is meant to be used in conjunction with the Plumber’s Training Manual and the Recommended Presentations (PPTs) to execute a successful …

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Walther, D. (2016)

Introducing city sanitation plan: practitioners manual

“Introducing City Sanitation Plan: A Practitioners Manual” is a culmination of the long drawn process in introducing the importance of CSP for city development. It aims - to sensitize practitioners (key ULB level officials, decision makers, city engineers etc.) to the importance and significance of the CSP as a planning and guidance tool; to support them in understanding key concepts of the …

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Walther, D. (2015)

Introducing city sanitation plan: Trainer's manual

Ensuring citywide sanitation is challenging and needs strategic planning as well as involvement of various actors /agencies, such as decision makers at state and city level, city engineers and technical experts in areas of urban planning, sanitation, technical infrastructure and financing. One of the main requirements in establishing a citywide sanitation system on the ground is strong …

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Dube, R. (2015)

Improving lives
The road to 100% city sanitation

This impact brochure introduces the reader to the main objectives and interventions of the project and highlights hands-on experiences from the ground. The main focus of this brochure lies on showing the impact of the project SNUSP on people living in cities, institutional processes such as sanitation planning and policy making at national, state and city level.

Finally it provides insights …

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Various authors (2011)

Policy paper on septage management in India

With fast growing economy and urban population, the waste generation is steeply increasing in India. Due to paucity of resources, the local bodies, which are responsible for management of wastes, are not able to provide this service effectively. According to Centre Pollution Control Board (CPCB) study, out of 38254 MLD of sewage generated in India, the treatment facilities are available for 30% …

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Various authors (2016)

CSE Workshop on Mainstreaming Citywide Sanitation: Opportunities and Challenges for Excreta Management

The Centre for Science and Environment (CSE) organised a two day workshop on “Mainstreaming Citywide Sanitation: Opportunities and Challenges for Excreta Management” from April 4-5, 2016 in New Delhi. The objective of the workshop was to promote active exchange of experiences of national and international opportunities and challenges in excreta management. The workshop was attended by over …

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Langergraber, G., Lechner, M., Müllegger, E. (Eds.) (2016)

Sustainable Sanitation Practice 26

Besides sanitation, solid waste management plays an important role in improving the hygienic conditions in cities. There are several strong links between sanitation and solid waste management. In sanitation systems without sewers, urine, faecal matter and faecal sludge have to be collected from the single households such as solid waste. Faecal matter as well as sludge from wastewater treatment …

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ESCAP, UN-Habitat, AIT (2015)

Policy guidance manual on wastewater management with a special emphasis on decentralized wastewater treatment systems

The Policy Guidance Manual on Wastewater Management with a special emphasis on Decentralised Wastewater Treatment Systems (DEWATS) highlights adequate policy and sustainable practices from the South-East Asia (SEA) region and worldwide. The primary objectives of the Policy Guidance Manual on DEWATS for SEA are three-fold:

(a) to guide national and local policy-makers and experts of SEA in …

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Brossard, S., Graf, J., Kayser, O. (2015)

Creating alliances to accelerate commercially viable sanitation
Technical reports

The past decades have seen a growing appreciation of the role of market-based approaches in driving global development. Many coalitions of public and private players have emerged to promote them. How best to trigger and support these market-based approaches? How to leverage the expertise and resources of diverse members in coalitions? This paper presents insights from the Toilet Board Coalition …

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Milles, P., Shah, N., Fentem, J. (2013)

Critical success criteria for evaluating sanitation models

Unilever believes that business has a role to play in solving the global sanitation crisis that leaves 2.5 billion people without access to improved sanitation. In 2012, Unilever convened the Toilet Board, a group of likeminded companies, NGOs and research professionals, with expertise in sanitation and a desire to take immediate action to address this issue. The Toilet Board aims to foster …

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GTO (2016)

WASH and Nutrition
WASH ePaper, Issue No.5

The WASH ePaper is an online magazine published at regular intervals in German, English, French and Spanish. Each issue takes a closer look at a current key issue in the water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) sector and related areas. It also provides updates on forthcoming national and international events, highlights current publications and projects, and reports on news from the sector. The WASH …

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Neal, D. et al. (2016)

Nudging and habit change for open defecation
New tactics from behavioral science

In this working paper, we draw on basic scientific findings from psychology, cognitive science, and behavioral economics to propose a framework of 8 System 1 Principles to support the initiation and maintenance of OD behavior change. In doing so, we build from the general framework advanced in the World Bank Group’s (2015) World Development Report: Mind, Society, and Behavior, which emphasized …

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Holmgren, K. E. et al. (2015)

State of the art compendium report on resource recovery from water

Increasing population growth leads to increased resource (water, food, chemicals and energy) demand. Concomitantly, increasing volumes of ‘used resources’, commonly considered waste, are produced. There is a growing awareness that the resources that could be potentially recovered from these used streams or wastes represent economic value and should not be lost. One of the greatest challenges …

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Kapur, A., Choudhury, P.R., Srinivas, V. (2016)

Budget briefs: Swachh Bharat Mission-Gramin (SBM)
GOI, 2016-17

Using government data, this brief reports on trends for SBM Gramin along the following parameters:

•Allocations and expenditures
•Physical progress of toilets built
•Expenditures incurred under Information, Education and Communication (IEC) activities

In addition, this brief reports findings from a fund tracking survey (PAISA) conducted in December 2015. The survey covered close to …

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Simiyu, S. (2016)

Determinants of usage of communal sanitation facilities in informal settlements of Kisumu, Kenya

Residents of informal settlements in developing countries are faced with various challenges, including a lack of household sanitation facilities, which leads to use of alternative methods such as open defecation. The lack of household sanitation facilities and consequent use of improper methods necessitated the introduction of communal sanitation facilities in informal settlements as a way of …

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Various Authors (2016)

Process evaluation of the national sanitation campaign of Tanzania

Despite continuous financial efforts to improve the conditions in the country, Tanzania was off track to meet both the MDGs target on water and sanitation and the national MKUKUTA goals. Whilst the country reached a high level of latrine coverage (90%) during the Mtu ni Afya campaign of the 1970s, very little progress has been made since then to move the population up the sanitation ladder, from …

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Hunga, W. (2016)

Financing sanitation for low-income urban communities
Lessons from CCODE and the Federation in Malawi

Like many other countries in the Global South, Malawi has failed to meet Millennium Development Goal (MDG) targets to improve access to sanitation. It has been estimated that only 25 percent of the country’s population has gained Access to improved sanitation since 1990 and access to it is a meagre 41 per cent, according to the latest Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) Report (2015). By utilising …

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Cronin, A. A. et al. (2016)

Association of safe disposal of child feces and reported diarrhea in Indonesia
Need for stronger focus on a neglected risk

Indonesia still faces several challenges in the areas of water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH). Diarrhea remains a major killer of children and it is important to understand the local diarrhea transmission pathways to prioritise appropriate WASH interventions to reduce diarrhea burden. This study used a cross-sectional data set from a recent national household survey (the 2012 Indonesia …

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Cole, B. (2013)

Participatory design development for sanitation
Frontiers of CLTS: Innovations and Insights Issue 1

IDS has been working in support of Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) since its beginnings. CLTS has now become an international movement for which IDS is the recognised knowledge hub. The Knowledge Hub is dedicated to understanding the on-the-ground realities of CLTS practice and to learn about, share and promote good practices, ideas and innovations that lead to sustainability and scale. We …

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Burt, Z., Nelson, K., Ray, I. (2016)

Towards gender equality through sanitation access
Discussion paper

This discussion paper reviews the extensive literature on sanitation to show that inadequate access to this basic service prevents the realization of a range of human rights and of gender equality. We recognize that “dignity” is a highly culture- and gender-specific term; we therefore argue that sanitation for all—sanitation that serves all genders equally—must be designed and planned …

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UNICEF (2012)

Raising even more clean hands
Advancing health, learning and equity through WASH in schools

Fulfilling every child’s right to water, sanitation and hygiene education remains a major challenge for policymakers, school administrators and communities in many countries. Although steady progress has been made to safeguard the well-being of schoolchildren, almost half of all schools in low-income countries still lack access to water and sanitation facilities.
The lack of quality data on …

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USAID (2014)

WASH-Friendly schools
A training resource for SPLASH use

The WASHplus project supports healthy households and communities by creating and delivering interventions that lead to improvements in access, practices, and health outcomes related to water supply, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) and indoor air pollution (IAP). This five year project (2010-2015), funded through USAID’s Bureau for Global Health (AID-OAA-A-10-00040) and led by FHI 360 in …

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Dreibelbis, R. et al. (2016)

Behavior change without behavior change communication: Nudging handwashing among primary school students in Bangladesh

Behavior change communication for improving handwashing with soap can be labor and resource intensive, yet quality results are difficult to achieve. Nudges are environmental cues engaging unconscious decision-making processes to prompt behavior change. In this proof-of-concept study, we developed an inexpensive set of nudges to encourage handwashing with soap after toilet use in two primary …

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Various authors (2015)

Water is life – Omeya ogo omwenyo
CuveWaters report

The Cuvelai-Etosha Basin in Namibia is home to approximately 850,000 people – almost half the country’s population. They all need good and healthy water for their daily life, for farming and for sanitation purposes. The Namibian Ministry of Agriculture, Water and Forestry, together with the Institute for Social-Ecological Research and the Technical University Darmstadt in …

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Sanitation events

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Stay informed about the activities of SuSanA and its partners. The SuSanA news mail is sent out around four times per year and contains information about news, events, new partners, projects, discussions and publications of the SuSanA network.

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What's new? We have a Wikipedia Drive for World Toilet Day!

Wikipedia is one of the key global channels for disseminating information about sanitation – so SuSanA is now organizing a major upgrade of the relevant pages. Are you a creative writer, journalist, editor or sanitation expert? Join this important crowd-sourcing event ahead of World Toilet Day (19 November).

More information in press release by SEI »





Resources and publications

Our library has more than 2300 publications, factsheets, presentations, drawings etc. from many different organisations. It continues to grow thanks to the contributions from our partners.

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The three links below take you to special groups of items in the library for more convenient access:


The project database contains nearly 400 sanitation projects of many different organizations dealing with research, implementation, advocacy, capacity development etc. Advanced filtering functions and a global map are also available. Information on how and why this database was created is here.

People working for SuSanA partners can add their own projects through their partner profile page. You might need your SuSanA login upgraded for this purpose. Please contact us if you would like to add a project.

Trainings, conference and events materials

Missed important conferences or courses? Catch up by using their materials for self study. These materials have been kindly provided by SuSanA partners.

Regional chapters

Use the map or the search tool to access the most relevant information and knowledge products for your region or country. This includes relevant resources, events, partners or projects.

Shit flow diagrams (SFDs), excreta flow diagrams

Shit flow diagrams (SFDs) help to visualize excreta management in urban settings. Access SFDs and more through the SFD Portal.




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Integrated content

We are hosting content from some other communities of practice and information-sharing portals. This section also provides a link to SuSanA's Sanitation Wikipedia initiative.

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Register as an individual member of SuSanA free of charge. As a member you can interact with thousands of sanitation enthusiasts on the discussion forum.  You can also get engaged in one of our 13 working groups and our regional chapters. Our FAQs explain the benefits further.

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