Sanitation Library

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Veses, O. et al. (2016)

SFD Report - Axum, Ethiopia
SFD Promotion Initiative

Axum is located in the Tigray region in the northern tip of the Ethiopian Plateau. The town is 1,041km away from the capital, Addis Ababa, with a population of 46,887. The number of Open Defecation is only 4%. Nevertheless, none of the city's excreta is delivered to a treatment plant. Therefore, only 22% of the city's excreta is safely managed, while 78% is unsafely managed.

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Lockwood, H. et al. (2016)

Kampala WASH symposium background note
Bringing together the 21st Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) meetings and the 2016 WASH sustainability forum

To this end the Kampala WASH Symposium, held in Uganda in June 2016, looked beyond the conventional notion of ‘projects’ to explore how we, as WASH actors, can and should work together within the wider complex systems that deliver services. With participants and presentations from governments, donors, researchers, and practitioners, this event brought emerging thinking on how to drive …

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Hassib, Y., Etemadi, H. (2016)

SFD Report - Kabul, Afghanistan
SFD Promotion Initiative

Kabul is the capital and largest city of Afghanistan, located in the eastern section of the country. According to a 2012 estimate, the population of the city was around 3,289,000. It was selected for the SFD program because it is a mega city with only 20% supplied with piped water and 60% informal dwellings. In Kabul it was estimated that 21% of excreta is managed safely while 79% of the excreta …

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Gutterer, B., Reuter, S. (2016)

Key elements for a new urban agenda
Integrated management of urban waters and sanitation

Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 6 “Ensure access to water and sanitation for all” and its targets can only be achieved by establishing new models for managing water resources. The fact that the Millennium Development Goal target for sanitation was not met in many countries shows the need to overcome traditional patterns of infrastructure development.

Such efforts also have …

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Furlong, C. et al. (2016)

How to prepare an excreta flow diagram (SFD)
SFD Promotion Initiative, 39th WEDC conference, Kumasi, Ghana - July 2016

This presentation was held at the 39th WEDC conference in Kumasi, Ghana in July 2016 by the SFD Promotion Initiative. The objective of the session was to introduce the tools available for SFD production and to guide participants through the process of creating an SFD.

The presentation contains information on:

- The SFD Promotion Initiative
- What is an SFD?
- Methodology for data …

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Furlong, C. (2016)

SFD Report - Dhaka, Bangladesh
SFD Promotion Initiative

Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh, is one of world's most populated cities. ‘Dhaka City’ is defined in this report as the areas under the jurisdiction of the two Dhaka City Corporations. They cover an approximate area of 120 sq. km and house a population of 6.8 million people. The number of open defecators is low (less than 1%), but a majority of the city’s excreta is discharged into the …

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Furlong, C. (2016)

SFD Report - Lima, Peru
SFD Promotion Initiative

Lima the capital of Peru and the third largest city in Latin America covering an area of 2,700 km2. Metropolitan Lima consists of the Province of Lima and the Constitutional Province of Callao and is located in a coastal desert. Approximately one third of Peru’s population live in Metropolitan Lima. It has an estimated population of 9,904,727. 92% of the excreta from the population of Lima is …

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Ekane, N. et al. (2016)

Comparative assessment of sanitation and hygiene policies and institutional frameworks in Rwanda, Uganda and Tanzania

Policies are considered critical for creating an enabling environment for improving access to sanitation and hygiene services. There are, however, certain requirements that policies must meet for them to be coherent and supportive. This paper presents a comparative assessment of the sanitation policy and institutional frameworks in Rwanda, Uganda and Tanzania based on a …

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Crocker, J. et al. (2016)

Teachers and sanitation promotion
An assessment of community- led total sanitation in Ethiopia

Community-led total sanitation (CLTS) is a participatory approach to addressing open defecation that has demonstrated success in previous studies, yet there is no research on how implementation arrangements and context change effectiveness. We used a quasi-experimental study design to compare two interventions in Ethiopia: conventional CLTS in which health workers and local leaders provided …

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Rognerud, I., Fonseca, C. (2016)

Government investment in sanitation
2016 state of play

In May 2015, African leaders committed to budget allocations amounting to 0.5% of their countries’ respective Gross Domestic Product (GDP) to sanitation and hygiene by 2020. Specifically, this commitment was part of the Ngor Declaration adopted at the fourth African Conference on Sanitation and Hygiene (AfricaSan) by ministers responsible for sanitation and hygiene.1 This brief explores the …

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Awunyo-Akaba, Y. et al. (2016)

Sanitation investments in Ghana
An ethnographic investigation of the role of tenure security, land ownership and livelihoods

Ghana’s low investment in household sanitation is evident from the low rates of improved sanitation. This study analysed how land ownership, tenancy security and livelihood patterns are related to sanitation investments in three adjacent rural and peri-urban communities in a district close to Accra, Ghana’s capital.

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SNV (2015)

Sustainable Sanitation, Organic Solutions (year 2, Nº 3)

Safe access to water and sanitation is an issue of global concern and a challenge posed through national policy as a human right to achieve the benefit of these basic services for all Bolivians.

Thanks to that approach, progress has been made significant achievements in increasing households today have improved their quality of life with water supply and sanitation services in their …

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SNV (2015)

Sustainable Sanitation, Organic Solutions (year 1, Nº 2)

Promotion and dissemination of Decentralized Sustainable Sanitation represent a strategic line of knowledge management of “Decentralized Sustainable Sanitation NODE Project as a Knowledge and Impact Generation
of Sustainable Solutions Platform”, implemented under a strong conviction to socialize experiences, share updated information and disseminate Ecological Sanitation values.

The …

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SNV (2015)

Sustainable Sanitation, Organic Solutions (year 1, Nº 1)

Reusso is a practical magazine that summarizes the knowledge and experience developed in ecological sanitation in various Bolivian institutions that make up the Decentralized Knowledge NODE on Sustainable Sanitation. It is a tool for the dissemination of Sustainable Sanitation Node Project as a Platform of Decentralized Knowledge Generation and Impact on Sustainable Solutions, funded by the …

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DSSP (2014)

Experiencia en Plantas de Tratamientos Residuales Municipio Cliza, Cochabamba (in Spanish)
Experience on wastewater treatment plants in Cliza municipality, Cochabamba

This paper systematizes the current situation and the experience of managing treatment plants wastewater in 6 localities of the municipality (Cliza, Retama, Ucureña, San Isidro, Retama, Surumi y Huasacalle) at Cochabamba, Bolivia. Through this systematization, the need is identified with a model of sustainable management ensuring the functioning of the sanitation system throughout the …

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DSSP (2016)

Gobernanza y gobernabilidad de los sistemas de saneamiento sostenible descentralizado: Experiencias de los sistemas sanitarios secos ecológicos y del tratamiento de aguas residuales descentralizadas (in Spanish)
Governance of decentralized sustainable sanitation systems: Experiences of ecological dry sanitation systems and decentralized wastewater treatment plants

The paper discusses key aspects of national sanitation experiences that were developed thanks to the commitment and participation of public, academic and private actors of the network; systematizes the establishment of rules, roles and institutional functions as well as the exercise of the rights and duties of participating organizations in the implementation of these non-conventional sanitation …

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Duflo, E. et al. (2015)

Toilets Can Work
Short and Medium Run Health Impacts of Addressing Complementarities and Externalities in Water and Sanitation

Poor water quality and sanitation are leading causes of mortality and disease in developing countries. However, interventions providing toilets in rural areas have not substantially improved health, likely because of incomplete coverage and low usage. This paper estimates the impact of an integrated water and sanitation improvement program in rural India that provided household - level water …

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Schoebitz, L. et al. (2016)

SFD Report - Kampala, Uganda
SFD Promotion Initiative

Kampala is the capital and most populated city in Uganda, with a population of 1,507,080. The total area of the city is 178 km². In line with rapid urbanization, approximately 60% of city residents live in informal low-income settlements (“slums”). To account for the large number of daily commuters into Kampala, the assessment is based on a total population of …

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Rognerud, R. et al. (2016)

IRC Trends Analysis, 2016– 2025

2016 is a special year for the water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) and “Big Water” sectors: it marks the start of the 15-year period for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). 2016 is also an important year for IRC, as it is the final year of our current five-year business plan.

The SDGs consist of 17 goals and 169 targets covering a wide range of sustainable development …

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GIZ (2016)

Sustainable Sanitation Newsletter 2016 (in English and French)
Issue no. 49, July 2016

Archived newsletters of the regular electronic news bulletin from the sustainable sanitation projects. These newsletters were sent to subscribed members involved in initiatives and projects in the field of sanitation.
Discusses news, publications, books, studies, conferences, online information, and events

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Furlong, C. (2016)

SFD Report - Hawassa, Ethiopia
SFD Promotion Initiative

Hawassa is the capital of the Southern Nations, Nationalities and People’s Region in Ethiopia. The Ethiopian Central Statistical Agency estimates that the population of Hawassa is 351,469 and it has an annual population growth rate of 4%. 100% of the population is reliant on onsite sanitation. The most popular sanitation technology being semi-lined pits (56%). Although the SFD shows that 75% of …

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Salian, P., Bieker, S. (2016)

Go with the Flow: A Workshop on Shit Flow Diagrams
Presentation at the Kampala WASH Symposium 2016: Led by I-San and GIZ

This workshop aimed at giving the participants a first-hand understanding of how SFDs can be developed and used in a city-wide context. With the information gained, the participants could adopt SFDs to their own context and use it to identify challenges and opportunities with regards to sanitation improvements in their respective cities.

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Cumming, O., Cairncross, S. (2016)

Can water, sanitation and hygiene help eliminate stunting? Current evidence and policy implications
Review Article in: Maternal & Child Nutrition

Stunting is a complex and enduring challenge with far-reaching consequences for those affected and society as a whole. To accelerate progress in eliminating stunting, broader efforts are needed that reach beyond the nutrition sector to tackle the underlying determinants of undernutrition. There is growing interest in how water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions might support strategies …

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Subramanian, S. V.,Mejía-Guevara, I., Krishna, A. (2016)

Rethinking policy perspectives on childhood stunting: time to formulate a structural and multifactorial strategy
Review Article in: Maternal & Child Nutrition

Stunting and chronic undernutrition among children in South Asia remain a major unresolved global health issue.
There are compelling intrinsic and moral reasons to ensure that children attain their optimal growth potential facilitated via promotion of healthy living conditions. Investments in efforts to ensure that children’s growth is not faltered also have substantial instrumental benefits …

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SuSanA Partners currently 319 partners

Sanitation events

SuSanA newsmail

Stay informed about the activities of SuSanA and its partners. The SuSanA news mail is sent out around four times per year and contains information about news, events, new partners, projects, discussions and publications of the SuSanA network.

SuSanA partners are welcome to send us news items for inclusion in the SuSanA news mails.

Archived news »

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Tweets mentioning SuSanA »

What's new? We have a Wikipedia Drive for World Toilet Day!

Wikipedia is one of the key global channels for disseminating information about sanitation – so SuSanA is now organizing a major upgrade of the relevant pages. Are you a creative writer, journalist, editor or sanitation expert? Join this important crowd-sourcing event ahead of World Toilet Day (19 November).

More information in press release by SEI »





Resources and publications

Our library has more than 2300 publications, factsheets, presentations, drawings etc. from many different organisations. It continues to grow thanks to the contributions from our partners.

Add item to library »

The three links below take you to special groups of items in the library for more convenient access:


The project database contains nearly 400 sanitation projects of many different organizations dealing with research, implementation, advocacy, capacity development etc. Advanced filtering functions and a global map are also available. Information on how and why this database was created is here.

People working for SuSanA partners can add their own projects through their partner profile page. You might need your SuSanA login upgraded for this purpose. Please contact us if you would like to add a project.

Trainings, conference and events materials

Missed important conferences or courses? Catch up by using their materials for self study. These materials have been kindly provided by SuSanA partners.

Regional chapters

Use the map or the search tool to access the most relevant information and knowledge products for your region or country. This includes relevant resources, events, partners or projects.

Shit flow diagrams (SFDs), excreta flow diagrams

Shit flow diagrams (SFDs) help to visualize excreta management in urban settings. Access SFDs and more through the SFD Portal.




Discussion forum

Share knowledge, exchange experiences, discuss challenges, make announcements, ask questions and more. Hint: Your discussion forum login is the same as your SuSanA login. More about the forum's philosophy »

Integrated content

We are hosting content from some other communities of practice and information-sharing portals. This section also provides a link to SuSanA's Sanitation Wikipedia initiative.

Suggest content to add »

SuSanA partners

Learn more about current SuSanA partners, and sign up to become a partner organisation (if your organisation is eligible). This way you can show your support for SuSanA's vision and fully utilise the platform's functionalities. See FAQs for more details.

Apply to become a partner »

SuSanA meetings

Individual membership

Register as an individual member of SuSanA free of charge. As a member you can interact with thousands of sanitation enthusiasts on the discussion forum.  You can also get engaged in one of our 13 working groups and our regional chapters. Our FAQs explain the benefits further.

By getting a SuSanA login you can fully participate in the SuSanA community!

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